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任務型閱讀的整體教學設計
任務型閱讀的整體教學設計
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  閱讀教學在英語教學中占有重要的地位,具有培養學生的閱讀技巧和閱讀微技能的作用。筆者以人教版《高中英語》(NSEFC)必修模塊2Unit 2 The Olympic Games中Reading部分的An Interview為例,談談如何進行任務型閱讀的整體教學設計。
  一、閱讀任務的設計要求
  在設計閱讀任務時,教師應把課文作為一個整體來教。基于這一思路,筆者將任務型閱讀的整體教學設計分為以下三個部分:
  G381RA07.JPG
  教師在設計閱讀教學中的任務時還要注意以下幾點:
  1.任務要與閱讀話題密切相關,并貼近學生的生活實際。教師應考慮所設計的任務在日常生活中是否存在,以及如何使任務更有意義和有可操作性。
  2.任務設計要突出文章的語篇結構,盡可能包括文章(或段落)的主要內容。
  3.注意任務的形式是否與文章的內容和體裁協調。
  4.簡化課文的內容和形式,便于學生開展討論和辯論等拓展性任務活動。
  5.設計互動性強、形式多樣的任務,激發學生的參與熱情,調動其學習積極性,提高學生的語言運用能力以及分析和解決問題的能力。
  6.任務應由淺入深、前后連貫、層層深入,注意任務之間的銜接和層次,以保證課堂教學的整體性和流暢性。
  二、閱讀前的任務設計
  學生對閱讀材料的相關背景知識的熟悉程度是決定其理解程度的重要因素之一。筆者通過預讀、預覽等技巧,幫助學生把自己原有的知識與閱讀中將要出現的新知識相結合,便于學生整體理解閱讀材料。
  1.頭腦風暴法
  筆者在閱讀前以直觀圖片和視頻片斷等形式引入話題,激活學生頭腦中的相關圖式和背景知識,并通過小組討論、主題匯報的方式,幫助他們熱身,并預測課文的內容和結構。
  Task: Talk about the following three pictures according to what you know about the Olympic Games.
  G381RA08.JPG
  T:Before we start to learn today's lesson,let's talk about the three pictures about the Olympics. Work in groups first and say something about them.
  G381RA09.JPG: Picture 1 is the statue of a great Greek. His name is Pausanias.
  G381RA10.JPG:Pausanias was a famous traveler and writer in the second century AD. His Guide to Greece, a comprehensive guidebook for tourists that I read last year, is so informative that it may be regarded as the foundation of classical archaeology.
  G381RA11.JPG: Picture 2 is the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games.
  G381RA12.JPG:Maybe it is the largest principal stadium I have seen. It's very large and can hold thousands of audience.
  G381RA13.JPG:I can't make out the skating player in Picture 3. It seems to be an exciting skating competition in the 2002 Winter Olympics.
  G381RA14.JPG: I can tell you. She is a Chinese athlete named Yang Yang. She won a gold medal for China in the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. She is a famous skater.
  2.調查競賽法
  筆者通過考查學生對奧運知識的了解程度引入話題,并設計了以下小測試來激活學生大腦中的相關圖式;同時,通過搶答的方式讓學生相互提問,交流自己所了解的奧運知識,使學生進一步了解奧運會,同時也為學習課文內容做好了鋪墊。
  G381RA22.jpg
  三、閱讀中的任務設計
  筆者設計了信息轉換型的任務和活動,以完整的視覺表象形式將課文的主要內容、人物和事件、故事的發展過程和場景等生動、清晰地呈現給學生。
  1.信息匹配法
  在這一階段,筆者注意引導學生思考如下問題:What is the text mainly about?通過設計閱讀中任務,鼓勵學生靈活運用略讀和尋讀等閱讀技巧,迅速捕捉文章中的主要信息和事實,幫助學生提高總結和概括能力。為此,筆者設計了如下信息匹配任務,以幫助學生歸納文章的主題思想。
  Task: Tell us what each part of the text is mainly about and make a match.
  Part 1(Para.1~2) A. The motto of the modern Olympic Games
  Part 1(Para.1~2) B. The characteristics of the Summer and Winter Olympics
  Part 2(Para.3~7) C. The similarities and differences between the ancient and the modern Olympics
  Part 3(Para.8~11) D. Pausanias was amazed by the modern Olympic Games.
  Part 4(Para.12~16) E. The aims of Pausanias' magical journey
  以上任務能有效引導學生初步理解課文內容,并獲取文章的主要信息。
  課文的體裁不同,任務的形式也應隨之改變。對于敘事體裁的閱讀材料,教師可以設計記筆記 (Taking Notes)、畫時間線(Drawing a Timeline)、重新排序(Re-ordering Events)和填寫表格(Filling in the Table)等任務,幫助學生捕捉并理解閱讀材料中的主要信息。
  2.結構分析法
  待學生理解了閱讀材料的主題思想和段落大意后,筆者設計了流程圖任務,旨在指導學生勾勒出文章的框架和脈絡,清晰地展示文章的謀篇布局,以幫助學生深層次地理解語篇的邏輯結構、謀篇布局的技巧和主題思想。
  Task: Which of the following best shows the structure of the passage?
  G381RA15.JPG
  G381RA09.JPG:I think D is the correct answer. Because Part 1 is an introduction, which tells us why Pausanias had a magical journey. His aim was to find out information about the modern Olympics. Part 2 and 3 are supporting details. Part 4 is the conclusion that shows us the motto of the modern Olympic Games.
  G381RA10.JPG:I don't think so. Part 2 shows us the characteristics of the Summer and Winter Olympics. Part 3 tells us the similarities and differences between the ancient and modern Olympics. Therefore, the relationship between Part 2 and Part 3 is of equal rank. So A is the correct answer.
  T:I am glad that you can find the main points of the passage. Let's see the tree diagram and check the result:
  G381RA16.JPG
  3.信息歸類法
  信息歸類可以檢測學生對閱讀材料主要內容和框架結構的理解程度。具體做法是:根據文章的主題思想設置多個可以用來支持分論點的信息,并打亂其次序,要求學生將其插入閱讀材料中的相應位置。
  Task: Here are some examples which can be used in the reading passage. Go through the passage and see in which paragraph these examples should be.
  ①Part. ______ No middle, long distance races or the 110-meter hurdles are included in the Winter Olympics.
  ②Part. ______ Pausanias was a Greek traveler and writer in the second century AD. His Guide to Greek is such an informative guidebook that you can come on a magical journey to find out the ancient Olympic Games.
  ③Part. ______ Just remember the spirit of the Olympic Movement—swifter, higher, stronger.
  ④Part. ______ Only men and boys could compete in the athletics in the old days. Women could take part in chariot races with homes but this was the only event they could join in. Married women were not allowed to watch the Games; otherwise, they could be put to death.
  4.因果配對法
  因果配對法要求學生深刻理解所學文章,通過邏輯推理挖掘句子之間的因果關系,從而更清晰地了解語篇的脈絡。例如,筆者設計了如下活動,讓學生區分文章中哪些是觀點,哪些是事實。
  Task: Match the causes in the left column with the possible effects in the right column.
causes                          Effects①I like the way the writing       A. Pausanias thinks that theywas organized.                        should feel proud.② China will host the 2008        B. I like the idea of somebodyOlympic Games, which is a             from ancient Greece cominggreat honor.                          back to our time to find out③All athletes can take part if       how things have changed.they reach the standard to         C. It was not easy for China tobe admitted to the Games.             win over the developed④It's just as much a                 countries to host the 29thcompetition among countries           Olympics.to host the Olympics as to         D. Women are not only allowedwin an Olympic medal.                 to join in but also play a very                                      important role.

  四、閱讀后的任務設計
  閱讀后的任務要求學生評價和判斷所學文章的主要內容,并能在類似的情景中運用所學知識。這種任務有助于培養學生的創造性思維,提高學生對文章的理解和分析能力。
  1.意圖猜測法
  意圖猜測法是引導學生進行評價性閱讀的第一步。如果不了解作者的寫作意圖,學生理解文章內容時就可能產生歧義或誤解。筆者設計了如下任務,引導學生從課文的來源、內容的呈現方式和版面設計等方面快速而準確地識別作者的寫作意圖和立場。
  Task: What is the purpose of the writer?
  ①To attract more visitors to make a magical time journey.
  ②To let people know more about the Olympics.
  ③To amuse readers by making a magical story.
  ④To describe the importance of knowing the history of the Olympics.
  2.主題辯論法
  開展“贊成還是反對”的辯論活動,即師生共同從閱讀材料中選出一些有爭議或有代表性的觀點和句子,讓學生發表自己的看法,并陳述理由。這項任務有利于培養學生思維的廣闊性、靈活性和深刻性。
  Task: Do you agree or disagree with the following statements? Why?
  ①The modern Olympic Games are very important to our society. (□Agree □Disagree)
  ②It is important to win a sports match. (□Agree □Disagree )
  ③The 2008 Olympic Games will bring more good results to China. (□Agree □Disagree)
  ④The spirit of the Olympics is a good motto for sports and life in general. (□Agree □Disagree)
  3.任務拓展法
  拓展性任務可以引導學生討論閱讀材料中沒有涵蓋或論述不足的話題或觀點,促進學生進一步挖掘文章的主旨和內涵。在本節課的結尾處,筆者設計了以下任務:
  Task: Work in groups and have a discussion after rereading the passage and looking at some pictures of China's bid for the 2008 Olympics.
  Topic①:Our government tried its best to compote for hosting the 2008 Olympic Games, which cost a lot of money. Do you think it was worthwhile to do that?
  Topic②:Think about what we will do and what we can do for the 2008 Olympic Games.
  通過討論以上兩個話題,學生了解了奧運會悠久的歷史,領悟了奧運精神的內涵,堅定了我國辦好2008年奧運會的決心與信心,也激發了學生的愛國熱情。而且,通過開展“我們能為北京奧運會做些什么”的主題研討,充分體現了學生積極參與奧運的主人翁意識。
  五、結束語
  任務型閱讀的整體教學設計雖然沒有固定的模式,卻有其內在的規律。教師只有樹立以學生為主體的思想,精心設計閱讀教學的各個環節;充分調動學生參與閱讀的積極性,同時通過觀察自己的課堂行為,在驗證和借鑒已有研究成果的基礎上,才能形成自己的教學理念和獨特的教學風格。
中小學外語教學:中學版京1~4G381中學外語教與學楊延從20072007
楊延從 福建廈門市翔安區教育研究中心
作者:中小學外語教學:中學版京1~4G381中學外語教與學楊延從20072007
2013-09-10 20:49

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