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作業評語  ——英語教學中常被遺忘的角落
作業評語  ——英語教學中常被遺忘的角落
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  在英語教學中,我們重視課堂用語,但是忽視作業評語。翻開學生的作業本,看到的多是簡單的對、錯符號或分數或等級。幾乎沒有評語,至多是千篇一律的All right,OK或Good。許多英語教師改進教學,把大量的時間用于備課、課堂教學、作業的布置與批改、測驗考試等,卻想不到花點時間用在學生的作業評語上。作業評語是英語教學中的一個重要環節,有其自身的特點和功能。我認為,作業評語的重要性會隨著人們對“素質教育”的重視而逐漸被認識。
      一、作業評語與課堂用語是英語教學的兩個要素。
  教師使用課堂用語是為了提高學生的英語口語理解和表達能力,對于知識點和書面表達的掌握程度則要通過作業來練習和檢驗。教師多使用作業評語可以提高學生的書面理解和表達能力。課堂用語轉眼即逝,而作業評語卻能長久保存。在課堂上教師面對的是全班學生,在有限的課堂時間內不可能逐一對學生進行評價。而教師在批改作業時所面對的是每一位學生的作業,便于因材施教,個別指導。可以說,評語可彌補課堂教學的不足,是師生對話的一種方式。
  學生閱讀作業評語是對語言的實際運用。因為教師在評語中所使用的語言是有實際內容的,即對某個學生及其作業的具體情況所進行的分析或評價,所以很容易被學生理解、接受或效仿。
  作業評語所使用的語言應該與學生的語言水平相當。教師可以利用學生已學的單詞、短語、句型、時態、語態、語氣或篇章結構等,也可以用即將接觸的語言。這不僅可以評價作業,而且能幫助學生鞏固和運用語言。例如:
    1.單詞:
  Good! Nice! Great! Okay! Lovely! Perfect! Marvelous! Pleasant! Wonderful! Correct! Incorrect! Careless! Unclear! Untidy!
    2.短語:
  Very nice! Quite correct! Quite OK (Okay)! Neat and tidy!Well -done ! Well-written! Just so- so. Far from correct. Socareless!
    3.句型:
  A. That's all right! /That's OK. /That's wrong.  /That'sincorrect!
  B. It is clever of you to do so. /It's nice of you to sayso. /It's careless of you to write this way.
  C. You've done so nicely. /You've made such a carelessmistake!
  D. What good work you've done! /What a good boy you are! How carefully you've worked! /How nice your work is!
  E.Try to do better next time!  /See what you've done!/Correct your mistakes., /Don't do that again! /Don't be sosilly, John!
  F. I find you've made a lot of progress! /I think you canwork more carefully next time. /I'm sorry you've made so manymistakes in your work.
  G. Your handwriting is not so nice as Maggie's.  /You'vedone better than last time. /You can do best of all if youtry harder.
  H. What do you think of your work? /How did you like yourhandwriting? /Isn't your work lovely?  Don't make such acareless mistake again, will you? /Let's try to say correctEnglish, shall we?
    4.時態:
  A. John, you've done best of all in your class!  /You'vemade so much progress!
  B. You're doing nicely!
  C. Your English will become better if you work harder.
  D. Now you can do better than you did before.
  E. You used to make a lot of mistakes in grammar, but nowyou do more correctly.
    5.語態:
  A. You do your work well. /Your work is well done.
  B. You have made great progress in English this term./Your English has been greatly improved this term.
    6.語氣:
  A. Your English is excellent.
  B. I wish you would work harder. /How I wish you would bemore careful.
  C. Pay attention to your spelling. /Keep on and on.
    7.篇章:
  Diana, you alwasy do well in English. But sometimes you are a little careless. You see, what you've done here. You've made such a funny mistake! I think you'll correct it. Try to do your work as carefully as you can.
  有些教師認為,作業評語只是對作業本身進行評價,這是一種狹隘的觀點。我認為,作業評語的內容也可以包括有關學生學習和生活的方方面面,其語言形式更可以千變萬化。它們可以是:
  一個詞,例如:
  Great! (Perfect! Wonderful! So nice! ...)
  一句話,例如:
  Anna, what a good girl you are! (How nice your work is!You've done so well! Isn't it great...)
  一則格言,例如:
  Practice makes perfect. (Where there's a will, there's away. Time and tide waits for no man.)還可以是三言兩語的描述或隨感,或是提出幾個帶啟發性的問題。只要能幫助學生提高運用英語的能力,掌握英語知識,激發他們的學習興趣和積極性,無所不可涉及,各種句式都可運用。
  寫好作業評語,教師不僅要有相當高的英語知識和靈活運用英語的能力,而且要有一定的文學素養。有時不是教師不想寫作業評語,或担心寫了學生理解不了,而是“書到用時方知少”,想寫而寫不出!
      二、作業評語可以實事求是地評價作業,是實施“素質教育”的需要。
  長期以來由于受“應試教育”的影響,許多教師熱衷于給學生作業打分數或劃等級。實踐證明,對某些學生,這樣做不僅不能起到鼓勵或鞭策的作用,相反還會抑制甚至打擊學生的積極性,因為分數和等級的標準往往是片面的和機械的,容易抹殺學生的個性,不能準確地衡量學生的真實成績,達不到因材施教的目的。而且,一般作業也不都適合評分。只有評語才能給學生以恰如其分的評價,使他們真正看到自己已取得的成績,存在的缺點和努力的方向。
  對差生的作業要批評,但更要多鼓勵。例如:
  Bob, you've made so many mistakes but do better next time.
  Billy, I think you can do better if you work a little harder.
  Jenny, be a careful girl and you'll make greater progress.
  一份差生的作業中可能有各種各樣的語法錯誤,但是主要內容也許很好或書法很不錯,如被全部地劃叉或判為零分,這就如同倒洗澡水把孩子也一起倒掉了一樣。而評語則可以起到去粗取精之功用。例如:
  I find you're good at expressing yourself. Avoid makingtoo many mistakes in grammar.
  You meant well, but try to make your sentences correct.
  Sally, you've made so many mistakes here. Try to correctthem. I like your handwriting very much. Keep on.
  對優等生的作業表揚中要有指正。教師可通過評語向他們提出更高的要求,如增強創造力等。可以說:
  It's good to be correct.  It's also important to be creative.
  Excellent, Diana! You haven't made any mistakes, but try to make your handwriting nicer.
  對中等生的作業應該慎重評價。他們往往是大錯不犯,小錯不斷。在他們的評語中要多點督促,因為這一類學生往往就缺少那么一點“推動力”,如推一推就上去了,松一松便下來了。例如:
  You'd better be more careful! Pay more attention to verbsand their uses!
  Work harder and then you'll make much progress!
  有些學生比較馬虎,經常犯拼寫錯誤。對于這類不大不小的問題,一個個批改不僅費力而且沒有必要,但也不能視而不見,提出要求是良方。例如:
  Your work is quite good except for a few spelling mistakes.  ( Try to spell your words correctly.  Avoid misspelling!)
  適當地給一則相關的諺語也未嘗不可。例如:
  A stitch in time saves nine. /Little by little one goes far.
  中學生在學習英語的過程中,最大的難題就是動詞及其用法。他們往往混用時態,在敘述的時候更是如此。如:“It's Sunday morning. Father was taking Sandy to a park nearby their home.  Suestays at home with mother. She was doing her homework...”
  這一段文字雖然時態混亂,但是內容不錯,簡單地否定或肯定都是不對的,輕則使學生茫然不知所措,重則挫傷他們的學習興趣和積極性。比較好的方法是向他們提出要求。例如:
  Pay much attention to tenses! ( Don't confuse one tensewith another! If you take your story as a past event, use thePAST TENSE all the way; if you make your story seem to betaking place now, use the PRESENT TENSE. You can't use tensesat random!)
  現在的中學生大多為獨生子女,過多的要求甚至批評難以奏效,“愉快教育”才能適應現代化教育發展的需要。對于那些缺乏良好學習習慣,或學習成績有下降趨勢的學生,要經常在作業評語中委婉地指出他們的缺點和不足,并表達對他們的希望。只要這些希望是真誠的、適時的和有內容的,學生就會從中理解老師對他們的信任、關心和愛心,從而轉化為學習的動力。
  冷冰冰的對、錯號或分數只是一些符號或標志而已,有時(如閱卷)不得不為之,但要表達豐富細膩的感情還要用評語。
      三、作業評語可以溝通師生思想感情,是教師職業道德,即“師德”水平高低的表現。
  我認為,評語是教師同學生促膝談心,說悄悄話,表達的是特別的關注和愛護,猶如一封短箋,或贊揚或勸誡,學生們都能心領神會。
  教師針對成績不同的學生及其作業,在不同場合所作的評語可激發學生們的斗志,讓優等生更上一層樓,使中等生改正缺點、發揚成績。更重要的是,能實事求是地評價差生及其作業,以便他們克服對英語學習的畏懼心理,樹立信心,努力從后進變為先進。
  學期開始,對于差生的作業評語中應多幾分激勵。例如:
  Jenny, you've made some silly mistakes in your homework.A new term begins now. I want you to work harder than last term just from the beginning. Cheer up!  A good beginningmakes a good ending.
  給中等生的作業評語中最好有一些督促。例如:
  Mark, you made much progress last term.  However,  you should work still harder this term. Do you think so?
  再如,有些學生在某個語言點上一再犯錯,如“It isn't belongto her.”采用一再劃叉的處理辦法,可能會無濟于事,給以適當的批評和指正效果可能好些。如:
  Jack, it's wrong to say "It isn't belong to her. " We say"It doesn't belong to her." "Belong" is a verb,  like "go,look, talk..." We say "He doesn't go to school. " Do we say "He isn't go to school"? No, never!
  某次大考之前,在好、中、差學生的作業上可以給予不同的評語,以鼓舞斗志。例如:
  Andy, I wish you great success in the coming examinations.
  Sandy, go over your lessons again and pay more attentionto the verbs we've learned this term.  Avoid making sillymistakes in your paper.
  Tom, make up the homework you've missed. Come to me if you find anything you can't understand.
  如某個學生上次考試不及格,可用下述話語激勵其爭取進步:
  Tom,  I'm sorry to know you've failed in the lastexamination. I hope you won't be too sad. Your classmates and I all want to help you. Remember, failure is the mother ofsuccess. I think you can do better next time.
  如一個學生因病假缺課,作業做得不好,教師要說些安慰的話:
  Janet, you've made some mistakes in your work. I think itvery natural. Don't lose heart. We're all ready to help youcatch up.
  甚至某個學生在課堂上不注意聽講,教師也可以在作業評語中提出勸告。如:
  Kelly, you don't know how to do these exercises. In fact, they aren't so difficult.  The reason is that you didn'tlisten carefully in class!
  又如,在節假日前,教師可以給予學生一些祝愿語:
  Merry Christmas! /Happy New year! . /Have a good timeduring the Spring Festival! /Enjoy yourselves in the comingholidays!
  作業評語一般寫在學生的作業后邊,但也可寫在中間的某個位置,與批改漢語作4的“眉批”很相似。
  比如,某個句型很難掌握,可有個差生竟然做對了,教師應及時加以表揚,在那個句子旁邊寫上:
  Quite right, John.(或You see, you've done so well!)
  又如你發現一個精彩的句子,可在該句下邊寫道:
  Excellent! (Wonderful! Perfect! Beautiful! Clever!  Good girl!)
  Oh, it's so nice a sentence! (What a beautiful sentence!I like this sentence very much. It's very creative. It's full of humour.)
  如遇到一處屢改屢犯的語法錯誤,只有明確的批語才能產生較深的印象:
  Wrong again! (Oh, so bad! Such a careless boy!)
  I'm both sorry and surprised! (或 You've made such amistake again.)
  剛接觸某個語法現象,如一般現在時,一部分學生在腦海里還沒有形成明確的概念,做作業時很可能犯一些語法錯誤。對于這些錯誤靠打叉不解決問題,但又不能在作業本上一一解釋。事實上,一時也解釋不清, 我們可以提出勸告或警告以示注意。 比如有這樣一個錯句:“Hehas gone to Japan three times.”在此句旁邊不妨給這樣的評語:
  No, we never say so. We say " He has been to..." (或 John, you don't know we Chinese students often make this kind ofmistake!)
  有些動詞,比如enjoy的用法也容易出錯:“They enjoy collectstamps.”我們知道enjoy后只接動名詞而不接動詞原型,然而初中學生尚未學到動名詞。對于這樣的句子簡單地劃叉會使學生感到莫名其妙,不如給評語好。
  Jenny, it's wrong to say "enjoy do sth." or "enjoy to dosth." We only say" enjoy doing sth." Remember!
  中國學生常常漏寫聯系動詞,如:His brother very tall.對于這個錯句我們可以用添加號∨或∧,也可以批上:
  Is it a sentence? No, it has no verb in it. Be carefu[1]!這方面的評語也可以與有關的符號一同使用。
  作業評語會不會增加教師的負担呢?我的看法如下:
  1)表面上看起來, 寫作業評語比傳統的作業批改增加教師的負担,而事實上正相反。傳統的作業批改方法是“遇對必鉤(√),有錯必糾(×)”,它既違背語言生成和發展的規律,又有悖于啟發式教學原則,長期以來師生不知為此浪費了多少時間和精力。
  2)教師并不一定每次給每個學生的作業寫批語。 作業評語不能過多、過濫,過猶不及。而且每次評語寫多少要因時制宜,貴在堅持。只要每周能給每個學生寫一、兩次恰當的評語就能使他們始終保持清醒的頭腦、強烈的興趣和昂揚的斗志。
  
  
  
中小學外語教學京10~14G38中學外語教學高學棟19981998 作者:中小學外語教學京10~14G38中學外語教學高學棟19981998
2013-09-10 20:50

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