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    時代作品 >>> 侯捷無責任書評及電腦散文
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教之木鐸 電腦辭典
教之木鐸 電腦辭典
侯捷     阅读简体中文版

1997.10.01

鐸:古時宣布教令用的一種大鈴,
金口金舌的叫金鐸,金口木舌的叫木鐸。
論語八佾篇:
『天下之無道也久矣,天將以夫子為木鐸』。


電腦字典到底有什麼用?好像沒有什麼用!這樣吧,我問:『有電腦字典的資訊人請舉手』。舉起來的手恐怕是少之又少。

如果它沒用,怎麼會有人愿意傾整個出版社之力去做這種字典編纂的勞苦工作呢?如果它有用,又怎麼擁有電腦字典的資訊人卻竟是如此之少呢?
我自己一向沒有電腦字典,也不覺得字典里頭每個專有名詞的三兩句介紹有什麼大用。直到前陣子,我有一個構想,想在我的擅專領域(Windows 作業系統與程式設計),撰寫一本專有名詞與術語的深度導游,對這個領域里頭的縮寫字如 DDE、DLL、MFC、OLE、NE format、PE format,或是作業系統中的Context Switch、Linear Address、Virtual Machine...等等重要觀念在 Windows 領域中的實作細節,做詳盡的圖解式介紹,每一個名詞(可能)花上三兩頁說明,搭配圖片,甚至程式碼 -- 如果需要的話。說穿了,這其實就是一本電腦字典,但是橫向很窄,縱向很深。

既然是本「電腦字典」,寫作態度就要更加戒慎恐懼了。我不但需要大量的輔佐資料,同時也怕 羅項目不夠,所以托紐約的曾銘源為我買「所有買得到的電腦字典」。他為我買了三本。後來我在期刊廣告上看到微軟公司也出了一本電腦字典,以微軟現今在電腦界的地位,這一本可不能漏!於是又補上一本。

一買就是四本!

我自己那本「有點像又不太像」的電腦字典,壯志未酬,但是翻閱電腦字典卻也翻出了一些心得。有了這些字典,我才發現,它們其實還是有點作用的,起碼一些我自己沒有把握的名詞,可以先確認後再使用,安心一些。

這一次就為大家介紹我手上的四本英文電腦字典。

做為一本字典,常常被拿來比較的大約就是它的涵蓋范圍,也就是說它收集的名詞個數。不過由於電腦領域(含軟硬體)實在太廣,有些字典專注在硬體,有些字典專注在軟體,有些字典專注在通訊,所以光以 羅項目的多寡來比較,不見得理想。如果你說一本涵蓋 1000 筆項目的硬體字典比一本涵蓋 700 筆項目的軟體字典好,那是拿橘子和蘋果比,沒個準!
除了涵蓋范圍( 羅項目)之外,另一個重要的功能是交叉叁考能力。大凡稱得上工具書者,這一點都應該做到。我所舉的以下四本書,有的在交叉叁考名詞上打星號,有的在名詞之後加上 "See Also",雖然沒有超鏈結(hyperlink)那麼方便,差不多也夠方便的了。

注:所謂超鏈結(hyperlink)是一種資料叁考的形式,表現在軟體上就是:把交叉叁考的名詞冠以特殊的顏色或字形,并讓滑鼠移到該名詞上就變化形狀,於是當使用者在那個名詞上按下滑鼠按鈕,就會「跳」到那個名詞的解釋文字去。一般線上輔助系統都會具備 hyperlink 能力。


除了這些表面上可資比較的統計數字,其實真正代表電腦字典好壞與價值的,是它對各個名詞的解釋內容。正確性當然是第一要務,詳細與否則因讀者的程度與需求而異。選購一本電腦字典,最好的方法就是在書店里頭翻閱查詢你最熟悉的幾個名詞,看看它的解釋深度符不符合你的需要。

為了讓你對這四本電腦字典的體質有多一點的了解,我隨機選擇了幾個名詞,然後列出各本字典的解釋。這幾個名詞是:

 

作業系統類:Windows
電腦圖學類:dithering
資料結構類:binary tree
演算法類:Bresenham's algorithm
程式語言類:Pascal
物件導向類:object
電腦硬體類:modem
流行工具類:Delphi
流行技術類:Video On Demand
少見辭匯類:thunk or thunking
字頭縮寫類:DLLDynamic Link Library
通訊類:remote procedure callRPC
系統技術類:context switching
大公司名稱:Borland, Microsoft
網際網路類:VRML

 

■Dictionary of Computing - 4rd edition

出版公司:OXFORD
出版年份:1996
頁數:550 頁(精裝)
羅名詞:6000 個
售價:US$ 45.00


oxford-dictionary.jpg (12844 bytes)

這本字典形象非常典雅,不論是紙張、印刷、深藍色精裝封面、燙金書名(你得把書皮外套拿掉後才看得到),在在曝露出高貴的質感。噢,價格也很高貴!

以下是它的表現(打 * 者表示對該名詞另有收錄):

 

作業系統類:Windows

A *graphical user interface developed by Microsoft for the Intel family of microprocessors; it is also known as Microsoft Windows or MS Windows. Versions of Windows prior to *Windows 95 ran in conjunction with *MS-DOS and concealed many of the innate limitations of MS-DOS by allowing a form of virtual memory, unified management of peripheral devices, and multitasking. Windows permits easy transfer of information between applications, which may be running in separate *windows on the screen simultaneously. A style guide for application developers ensures that all Windows applications work in a similar way, markedly reducing the time taken to learn new applications.

 

電腦圖學類:dithering

Reducing the effect of sharp edges in a picture when intensities jump from one discrete value to another. A small random intensity called dither noise is added to the picture intensities at each point. Ordered dithering uses intensities in a matrix that is laid down on the picture in a periodic manner.

 

資料結構類:binary tree

1. A *tree in which each node has at most two subtrees, called the left and right subtrees of the node. At *level h of a binary tree there is a maximum of 2h nodes. A binary tree of *depth d thus has at most (2d+1 - 1) nodes and one with n nodes has a minimum depth of log2n.

The term binary tree is also used to describe any (ordered) tree of *degree two.

2. Any data structure used to represent a binary tree. Each node is usually represented by pointers to the left and right subtrees as well as to the data value associated with the node. The binary tree can then be represented as a pointer to its root node.

 

演算法類:Bresenham's algorithm

An algorithm that efficiently calculates the *pixel positions needed to define a specified line using only integer arithmetic.

 

程式語言類:Pascal

A programming language in common though decreasing use. Pascal was designed as a tool to assist the teaching of programming as a systematic discipline. To that end it incorporates the *control structures of *structured programming - sequence, selection, and repetition - and *data structures - arrays, records, files, sets, and user-defined types. It is an austere language, with a minimum of facilities, but what is provided is so well suited to its powerful than its more elaborate competitors.

Pascal was relatively easy to implement on a variety of machines since the Pascal compiler was written in Pascal. Used first as an educational tool, Pascal became a more-or-less standard language for the teaching of computer science. It spread into microcomputing in the form of the UCSD p-System : this is now little used, the dominant version in the micro world now being *Turbo Pascal. In 1982 ISO Standard Pascal was defined, but modern compilers, particularly Turbo Pascal, implement an extended an nonstandard version of the language.

 

物件導向類:object

A term loosely used to describe an identifiable component of a software system or design, now more commonly applied to a component that is in some sense selfcontained, having an identifiable boundary. In *object-oriented design, objects are the basic components from which the model of the system to be implemented is constructed.

In *object-oriented programming, the term has a more precise definition. An object is an instance of a component comprising data structures and procedures (called methods) for manipulating the structures. There methods are activated by messages sent to the object, and the interior structure of the object is entirely hidden from any other object (a property called encapsulation). Objects are derived from a template, and the collection of objects that are instances of a particular template are said to form a class. A particularly important feature is *inheritance, which allows new classes to be defined in terms of existing classes, inheriting some or all of the properties of an existing class. Some systems implement multiple inheritance, which allow a class to inherit properties from more than one parent class.

See also object-oriented architecture, object-oriented language.

 

電腦硬體類:modem

Short for modulator and demodulator. A device that can convert a digital bit stream into an analog signal suitable for transmission over some analog communication channel (*modulation), and can convert incoming analog signals back into digital signals (*demodulation). Modems are used to connect digital devices across analog transmission lines. Most modems are designed to match specific national or international standards so that data communication equipment from one manufacturer can talk to that of another.

Modems can be packaged in many ways : as *add-in cards or *PCMCIA cards allowing personal computers to communicate over ordinary phone lines, as small external units, or as rack-mounted sets for large applications requiring many simultaneous connections.

 

流行工具類:Delphi

未收錄

 

流行技術類:Video On Demand

未收錄

 

少見辭匯類:thunk or thunking

未收錄

 

字頭縮寫類:DLL (dynamic link library)

Abbrev. for dynamic link library. A file of procedures residing on disk that is available to an executing program so that relevant procedures can be read into memory and executed at run time. The advantage is that the executables are smaller, the link libraries can be shared, and providing the interface remains unchanged, can be updated without recompiling the application. Although extra time is spent in disk input/output, *disk chching and faster disk subsystems make this a valuable technique. See also overlay.

 

通訊類:RPC (remote procedure call)

Abbrev. for remote procedure call.

remote procedure call (RPC) : A procedure call in which the actual execution of the body of the *procedure takes place on a physically distinct processor from that on which the procedure cal takes place. In general the system invoking the procedure call is separate from the one executing it. Further the two systems and the communication channel linking them are all liable to fail in the period between the start of the procedure call and the final completion of execution and return of any result from the processor executing the procedure body to that executing the procedure call.

These factors have given rise to a number of different proposals for the course of action to be followed in the event of one or other of the systems failing; essentially to have the procedure body executed either at least one (by *retry) or at most once. These proposals tend to reflect the different priorities attached to the effect on the total system in the event of part of it failing.

 

系統技術類:context switching

A general term covering the situation in which a *process initiates a new type of activity. Any process functions in some form of environment, which defines the currently valid *variables that the process can manipulate, and their actual values, including the “undefined” value in the case where a variable has been created but has as yet had no value assigned to it. These remarks apply equally if the process being considered is one that is being dealt with by a person rather than a machine. A context switch occurs when the environment for the currently active process is replaced by a new environment.

 

大公司名稱:Borland, Microsoft

Borland : A US-based producer of PC software. Its best-known offerings are Quattro Pro (acquired by Novell in 1994) and Paradox; it also produces Turbo Pascal and similar development systems. In 19991 it bought Ashton-Tate and thus acquired dBASE.

Microsoft : The wunderkind of the software industry : the largest independent software producer in the world, founded by Bill Gates in 1982. Microsoft produces, among other products, *MS-DOS, *Windows, *Word, *Excel, *Access, *Visual Basic, and *Visual C++. As a software producer it is second only to IBM in terms of revenue and is ranked as number 19 by revenue in the list of the world' top IT companies (1993 figures)

 

網際網路類:VRML

未收錄

 

總評:在電腦科學里頭,比較基本教義的、傳統的、理論的、古典的詞匯,在這本書中獲得的重視比較多些;時髦工業技術用語或hacker的詞匯,收錄比較少。整本字典的組織與營造,給人信心而專業的感覺,一如我所說,「洋溢著古典的芬芳」。

 

■Computer & Internet Dictionary - 6rd Edition

出版公司:QUE
出版年份:1995
頁數:574 頁(平裝口袋型)
羅名詞:??? 個
售價:US$ 14.99


這本書的學術味比較淡,應用性比較濃。連 VxD 都找得到。它的封面有一個副標題:

que-dictionary.jpg (16306 bytes)

這本書的學術味比較淡,應用面比較濃,連Win32 VxD Registry都找得到。書中有不少關於應用軟體的執行畫面。它的封面有一個副標題,應該可以點出其特色:

Contains the Most Complete and Up-to-Date Definitions Including :

 

Windows 95
Windows NT
The Internet
Mac/PowerMac

也就是說,它相當貼近工業界。我們來看看它的表現:

 

作業系統類:Windows

See Microsoft Windows 95.

Microsoft Windows 95 : An operating system for Intel-based 80386DX, 486, and Pentium microprocessors. Windows 95 is designed for running Windows applications, including multimedia applications, in homes and offices. A completely redesigned graphical user interface (GUI) enhances ease of learning as well as day-to-day usability. Additional innovations include long file names, 32-bit disk and file systems, preemptive multitasking, improved handling of system resource problems and general protection faults (GPF), built-in support for the Microsoft Network and the Internet. Combining 16-bit and 32-bit source code to ensure reliable operation of existing 16-bit applications, Windows 95 is not a true 32-bit operating system (like OS/2 Warp or Microsoft's own Windows NT); nevertheless, users appreciate not having to upgrade their applications. For corporate environments, Windows 95 includes built-in network support, offering a consistent interface for accessing network resources on a variety of physical media. To aid in the often arduous task of installing new hardware components, Windows 95 incorporates Plug and Play capabilities, which allow nearly automatic installation and configuration of compatible accessories (such as sound cards and CD-ROM drives. See fig. M.3

 

電腦圖學類:dithering

In color or grayscale printing and displays, the mingling of dots of several colors to produce what appears to be a new color. With dithering, you can combine 256 colors to produce what appears to be a continuously variable color palette, but at the cost of sacrificing resolution; the several colors of dots tend to be mingled in patterns rather than blended well.

 

資料結構類:binary tree

未收錄

 

演算法類:Bresenham's algorithm

未收錄

 

程式語言類:Pascal

A high-level, procedural programming language that encourages programmers to write well-structured, modular programs that take advantage of modern control structures and lack spaghetti code. Pascal has gained wide acceptance as a teaching and application development language, though most professional programmers prefer C or C++. Pascal is available in interpreted and compiled versions

A major disadvantage of Pascal is that its standard version (Standard Pascal) contains many shortcomings. The language's inventor, Nicklaus Wirth, has offered a new language, Modula-2, as a successor to Pascal, that fixes some of the language's problems, and Borland International's Turbo Pascal makes Pascal easy for personal computer owners to use. See BASIC and FORTRAN.

 

物件導向類:object

In object linking and embedding (OLE), a document or portion of a document that has been pasted into another document using the Paste Link, Paste Special, or Embed Object command. See dynamic object and static object.

 

電腦硬體類:modem

A device that converts the digital signals generated by the serial port to the modulated analog signals required for transmission over a telephone line and, likewise, transforms incoming analog signals to their digital equivalents. People frequently use modems to exchange programs and data with other computers or on-line information services.

The speed at which a modem (short for modulator / demodulator) transmits data is measured in units called bits per second, or bps (technically not the same as baud, although the terms are often used interchangeably). Modems come in various speeds and use various modulation protocols. Most 2400 bps modems use the V.22bis protocol, while 9600 bps modems use the V.32 protocol, 14,400 bps modems the V.32bis standard, and 28,800 bps modems use the V.34. Faster modems are usually backward compatible with slower ones.

Two common standards for error-correcting protocols eliminate errors attributable to noise and other glitches in the telephone system : MNP-4 and V.42. For data-compression, two standards predominate: V.42bis and MNP-5. See acoustic coupler, auto-dial/auto-answer modem, Bell 103A, Bell 212A, CCITT protocol, direct connect modem, dirty, echoplex, external modem, full duplex, half duplex, Hayes command set, Hayes-compatible modem, internal modem, MNP-4, MNP-5, reliable link, and Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART).

 

流行工具類:Delphi

DELPHI : A full-service on-line information service, established in 1982 as an online encyclopedia. ┅ (不是我們想像中的 Borland Delphi

 

流行技術類:Video On Demand

未收錄

 

少見辭匯類:thunking

The means by which a 32-bit operating system, such as Microsoft Windows 95 or Operating System/2 (OS/2), communicates with a 16-bit application program. A computer system slows significantly when it must pause to thunk, which is why 32-bit application programs will soon become the norm.

 

字頭縮寫類:DLL

.DLL : The MS-DOS file name extension attached to a collection of library routines.

 

通訊類:remote procedure call (RPC)

未收錄

 

系統技術類:context switching

Changing from one program to another without exiting either program. A multiple-loading program enables context switching

Unlike the true multitasking possible with Microsoft Windows 95 and DESQview, a multiple-loading program doesn't allow background programs to continue executing, but does allow you to switch rapidly from one program to another. When combined with a graphical user interface (GUI) and cut-and-paste facilities provided by a clipboard, context switching lets you move data rapidly and easily from one application to another. See multiple program loading.

 

大公司名稱:Borland, Microsoft

未收錄

 

網際網路類:VRML

未收錄

 

總評:比較接近新新人類的風格,輕松、律動、激進。工業界新詞匯收錄比較多些,再加上少量軟體執行硬拷畫面,使得全書壓迫感降低。口袋型大小,在「輕松」這一項目上再加10分(但必須超大型口袋才容納得下)。

 

■Dictionary of PC Hardware and Data Communications Terms

出版公司:O'Reilly
出版年份:1996
頁數:513 頁(平裝)
羅名詞:900 個以上
售價:US$ 19.95


comm-dictionary.jpg (17252 bytes)

我對 O'Reilly 出版公司向來懷有一種特殊的敬意,因為他們愿意出版一些主題非常細微甚至非常奇怪的書籍,細到甚至連 Windows NT Backup & Restore,怪到甚至連 "sed & awk" 或是 "csh & tcsh" 他們都愿意出。諸君大概不知道什麼是 "sed & awk" 什麼又是 "csh & tcsh" 吧?呵呵,我也不甚清楚。這類主題還多咧:Progrmming PythonExploring ExpectLearning The Bash ShellLearn The Korn ShellLearn GNU EmacsLearn GNU Emacs ExtensionsApplying RCS and SCCS...

出好書的公司令人佩服;出好書又賺大錢的公司令人佩服又羨慕;出好書但賠錢的公司令人佩服又惋息;出好書但賠錢而卻鍥而不舍的公司,蠃得所有人的尊敬。

既然這是一本比較偏重硬體和通訊的電腦字典,我先前挑選的一些名詞未收錄進來的情況也就比較多些,不足為奇。我們來看看它的表現:

 

作業系統類:Windows

這本字典分別介紹了Windows 3.1Windows 95Windows NT。(先前數本字典也都是如此。)

 

電腦圖學類:dithering

未收錄

 

資料結構類:binary tree

未收錄

 

演算法類:Bresenham's algorithm

未收錄

 

程式語言類:Pascal

未收錄

 

物件導向類:object

未收錄

 

電腦硬體類:modem

要把這個字的全部解釋抄錄下來,就著實太辛苦些了。總共有將近三頁的篇幅,圖文并茂,介紹數據機各種協定的傳輸速率,傳真機功能,壓縮功能,非常深入。

 

流行工具類:Delphi

未收錄

 

流行技術類:Video On Demand

未收錄

 

少見辭匯類:thunk or thunking

未收錄

 

字頭縮寫類:DLL

Software (executable code or data, such as icons or fonts) used by Microsoft's Windows and IBM's OS/2 to provide services (such as a LAN driver or a distributed filing system) to applications.

One memory-resident copy of the DLL can be simultaneously shared by all applications.

DLLs with only data are called resource-only DLLs.

DLLs may have (for example) a .dll, .exe, .drv, or .fon extension. They may have no extension. Some DLLs can be automatically loaded when needed by a program, and others (usually drivers) must be loaded at system startup.

See WinSock.(侯捷發問:奇怪,DLL 為什麼和 WinSock 有關?)

 

通訊類:remote procedure call (RPC)

A method of program-to-program communications, usually for implementing cross-platform distributed computing.

Generically, RPC is an inter-process communication API whose strength is communication between different computing platforms, using multiple protocol stacks simultaneously. Most often used with TCP/IP, in which there are (unfortunately) two incompatible standard RPC implements :

1. OSF's DCE

2. Sun's ONC+ (probably the more widely implemented of the two)

To an application program, RPCs are local procedure calls that happen to start processes on remote machines. Communication is synchronous (sometimes called blocking), in that the requester must wait for a response before continuing.

An alternative to this concept is called messaging. See API, DCE, Messaging, ONC, OSF, and Sun.

 

系統技術類:context switching

未收錄

 

大公司名稱:Borland, Microsoft

Microsoft : What can be said? Microsoft is big, hires enthusiastic programmers who work around the clock, and has a WWW server at http://www.microsoft.com

Borland : 未收錄

 

網際網路類:VRML

A possible future extension of HTML to support simulation and modeling. See HTML.

 

在硬體和通訊方面,這本字典的表現很強,例如它以兩頁半的篇幅介紹T1,三頁的篇幅介紹TCP/IP,三頁的篇幅介紹UTPUnshielded Twisted Pair),兩頁的篇幅介紹HTML,三頁的篇幅介紹Enhanced IDE,四頁半的篇幅介紹CATV┅。辭匯收錄量雖少,但量少質精。

 

■Microsoft Press Computer Dictionary (3rd edition)

出版公司:Microsoft Press
出版年份:1997
頁數: 539 頁(平裝)
羅名詞: 7,600 個以上
售價:US$ 29.99  含光碟片一

ms-dictionary.jpg (18875 bytes)

如果你要一本貼近現代軟體工業的電腦字典,那麼這一本應該會很吸引你的目光,因為它是由軟體霸主微軟公司麾下的 Microsoft Press 所編纂。不談名頭,事實上它的內涵還真是不錯,圖片的比例比前兩本多許多,一些硬體設備,或軟體執行畫面,或甚至如 B-tree index structureBubble chart 的示意圖都有。書附一張光碟片,是本書的電子版;我個人認為電子版沒有什麼用,不過反正光碟片很薄,多這一張不礙事兒。

我們來瞧瞧它的表現。

 

作業系統類:Windows

An operating system introduced by Microsoft Corporation in 1983. Windows is a multitasking graphical user interface environment that runs on both MS-DOS-based computers (Windows and Windows for Workgroups) and as a self-contained operating system (Windows 95, Windows NT). Windows provides a standard interface based on drop-down menus, windowed regions on the screen, and a pointing device such as a mouse.

 

電腦圖學類:dithering

A technique used in computer graphics to create the illusion of varying shades of gray on a monochrome display or printer, or additional colors on a color display or printer. Dithering relies on treating areas of an image as groups of dots that are colored in different patterns. Akin to the print images called halftones, dithering takes advantage of the eye's tendency to blur spots of different colors by averaging their effects and merging them into a single perceived shade or color. Depending on the ratio of black dots to white dots within a given area, the overall effect is of a particular shade of gray. Dithering is used to add realism to computer graphics and to soften jagged edges in curves and diagonal lines at low resolutions. See the illustration. See also aliasing, halftone. (含圖解)

 

資料結構類:binary tree

In programming, a specific type of tree data structure in which each node has at most two subtrees, one left and one right. Binary trees are often used for sorting information; each node of the binary search tree contains a key, with values less than that key added to one subtree and values greater than that key added to the other. See the illustration. See also binary search, tree. (含圖解)

 

演算法類:Bresenham's algorithm

未收錄

 

程式語言類:Pascal

A concise procedural language designed between 1967 and 1971 by Niklaus Wirth. Pascal, a compiled, structured language built upon ALGOL, simplifies syntax while adding data types and structures such as subranges, enumerated data types, files, records, and sets. See also ALGOL, compiled language. Compare C.

 

物件導向類:object

1. Short for object code (machine-readable code). 2. In object-oriented programming, a variable comprising both routines and data that is treated as a discrete entity. See also abstract data type, module (definition 1), object-oriented programming. 3. In graphics, a distinct entity. For example, a bouncing ball might be an object in a graphics program.

 

電腦硬體類:modem

Short for modulator/demodulator. A communications device that enables a computer to transmit information over a standard telephone line. Because a computer is digital (works with discrete electrical signals representing binary 1 and binary 0) and a telephone line is analog (carries a signal that can have any of a large number of variations), modems are needed to convert digital to analog and vice versa. When transmitting, modems impose (modulate) a computer's digital signals onto a continuous carrier frequency on the telephone line. When receiving, modems sift out (demodulate) the information from the carrier and transfer it in digital form to the computer. Sophisticated modems are also capable of such functions as automatic dialing, answering, and redialing in addition to transmitting and receiving. Without appropriate communications software, however, modems cannot perform any useful work. See also baud rate.

 

流行工具類:Delphi

Delphi Information Service : An online information service and Internet access provider based in Boston. (不是我們想像中的 Borland Delphi

 

流行技術類:Video On Demand

未收錄

 

少見辭匯類:thunk or thunking

未收錄

 

字頭縮寫類:DLL

A feature of the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems and OS/2 that allows executable routines to be stored separately as files with DLL extensions and to be loaded only when needed by a program. A dynamic-link library has several advantages. First it does not consume any memory until it is used. Second, because a dynamic-link library is separate file, a programmer can make corrections or improvements to only that module without affecting the operation of the calling program or any other dynamic-link library. Finally, a programmer can use the same dynamic-link library with other programs. Acronym : DLL.

 

通訊類:remote procedure call (RPC)

In programming, a call by one program to a second program on a remote system. The second program generally performs a task and returns the results of that task to the first program.

 

系統技術類:context switching

A type of multitasking; the act of turning the central processor's “attention” from one task to another, rather than allocating increments of time to each task in turn. See also multitasking, time slice.

 

大公司名稱:Borland, Microsoft

未收錄

 

網際網路類:VRML

Acronym for Virtual Reality Modeling Language. A scene description language for creating 3-D interactive Web graphics similar to those found in some video games, allowing the user to “move around” within a graphic image and interact with objects. VRML, a subset of Silicon Graphics' Inventor File Format (ACII), was created by Mark Pesce and Tony Parisi in 1994. VRML files can be created in a text editor, although CAD packages, modeling and animation packages, and VRML authoring software are the tools prefered by most VRML authors. VRML files reside on an HTTP server; links to these files can be embedded in HTML documents, or users can access the VRML files directly. To view VRML Web pages, users need a VRML-enabled browser, such as WebSpace from Silicon Graphics, or a VRML plug-in for Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. See also 3-D graphic, HTML document, HTTP server (definition 1).

 

■ 另類字典 The New Hacker's Dictionary

The New Hacker's Dictionary

出版公司:MIT Press
出版年份:1993
頁數:505 頁(平裝)
羅名詞:??? 個以上
售價:US$ 14.95

中規中榘的電腦字典之外,有一本滿有趣的字典,離經叛道,名為The New Hacker's Dictionary,也值得提一提。這本字典收錄有像這樣的恐怖字眼:

RTFMAcronym for "Read The Fucking Manual".

RTFBAcronym for "Read The Fucking Binary". Used when neither documentation nor source for the problem at hand exists, and the only thing to dot is use some debugger or monitor and directly analyze the assembler or even the machine code. "No source for the buggy port driver? Aaargh! I hate proprietary operating systems, Time to RTFB."

RTFSAcronym for "Read The Fucking Source". Variant form of RTFM, used when the problem at hand is not necessarily obvious and not answerable from the manuals -- or the manuals are not yet written and maybe never will be.

UTSLOn-line acronym for "Use the Source, Luke" (a pun on Obi-Wan Kenobi's "Use the Force, Luke!" in Star Wars) -- analogous to RTFS, but more polite. This is a common way of suggesting that someone would be better off reading the source code that supports whatever feature is causing confusion, rather than making yet another futile pass through the manuals, or broadcasting questions on USENET that haven't attracted wizards to answer them.

外國的 hacker 和臺灣的 hacker 習慣用語當然不會一樣,我們也感受不到他們的「幽默」。本國的 hackers 如果也編一本「黑客物語」,可能有賣點唷。

 

我向來鼓勵我的學生,面對術語要用原文,總不要說:「我的視窗函式是一個回呼函式,你可以遞送張貼訊息給它」,應該說:「我的 window procedure 是一個 callback function,你可以 send 或 post 訊息給它」。因著這個緣故,對於原文專有名詞,我鼓勵大家多多接受并使用。

 

給我報報

像電腦字典這麼工程浩大又意義非比尋常的東西,說實在,我不太敢看好國內的產品。國內沒有一家電腦圖書出版社愿意花大批人力以團隊方式來做這樣的書籍(成本與利益的考量,怪不得他們)。最近我看到BBS上熱烈探討一本新出版的電腦字典,名為「最新電腦辭典/ 峰」,很覺有趣,其內容簡直到了「給我報報」的水準,可列入荒謬名人堂,特擇之搏君一哂:

 

PASCAL Language [巴斯卡語言] P-13 頁)

為高級語言之一種。由巴斯卡所發明之程式語言。巴斯卡之進階語言稱之 "資料結構"Data Structure

 

FoxPro [狐紀語言] F-26 頁)

一圖形函數館。提供繪圖,支援 PutPcxIBMP 三種格式。

 

Object Oriented Language (OOL) [物件導向語言]O-2頁)

即第四代語言,是一種非程序化語言。

 

Object Oriented Programming (OOP) [物件導向程式]O-3頁)

屬於模式化的編輯語言。如:ScriptXKaleida

 

WINDOWS [Windows 應用程式,窗]W-5頁)

主供文書處理使用。現今附加於 Office 的套裝軟體內。

 

WINDOWS 95 [Windows 應用程式,窗]W-5頁)

...裝設方便、操作容易、融合 OS/2 Windows NT 搭配成 Cairo 軟體...

 

Office [辦公室套裝軟件]O-6 頁)

此軟體包括 Excel WindowsPower PointWindows 三種細部軟件。Power Point 可畫出電腦系統流程圖,Excel Windows 可編寫程式,Windows 類似於為一般之多功能文書處理軟件。

 

真個是臨表涕泣,不知所云!

孔子說,苛政比老虎更兇猛!侯子說,爛書比垃圾更沒用!仰聲長嘆,悲不能言。
  

2010-09-10 08:33

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