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    The roots of the modrn hamburger go back to the German city of Hamburg.According to historians, German immigrants to the United States brought the recipe for a dish of raw chopped beef mixed with egg. The Germans learned about the dish,now called Steak Tartare,from Russian sailors who visited Hamburg and brought along an appetite for food from their homeland.The Russians apparently learned of the dish from the nomadic Tartars.
    By the time it reaehed the New World(注:the New World指美洲大陸),a hamburg steak was shredded or chopped beef shaped into a patty that was broiled with onions and spices. The first documented mention of hamburg steak in the United Shates was in the 1830s. It was served at Delmonico's,an expensive restaurant in New York City,for the price of 10 cents.In 1896,hamburg steak was included for the first time in the famous cookbook of Boston chef Fannie Farmer.
    More than one person has claimed to be the creator of the modern hamburger sandwich.At various times in the late 1800s and early 1900s,cooks(or their descendants) from Wisconsin,Connecticut,Ohio,and Texas boasted of inventing the hamburger.
    A theme repeated in some of the stories is that customers wanted a quick meal that was easy to carry.Charlie Nagreen's family claims he invented the hamburger in Wisconsin in 1885,when he was only fifteen years old.He fried ground beef in butter and served it between two slices of bread at the Outgamie County Fair.Charlie continued to sell his hamburgers at the fair for the next 64 years. In New Haven, Connecticut, in 1900, the owner of Louis Lunch supposedly invented the hamburger when his cus tomers asked for something tasty and quick to serve. That is what the grandson of louis,and current owner of the small restaurant,claimed 90 years later when the restaurant was still in business.
    Another theme is that hamburgers were invented when a creative cook ran out of the usual ingredients and had to improvise.One day in 1892 at the Summit County Fair,Frank Menches and his brother Charies,of Akron,Ohio,ran out of sausage for sandwiches and substituted ground beef instead. Their switch was so popular with customers that they began to specialize in beef sandwiches.When Frank died in 1951,his obituary in the newspaper reported he earned a small fortune from his hamburgers.
    The most widely reported story about the origin of the hamburger comes from the 1904 World's Fair. Fletcher Davis and his wife Ciddy, from Athens,Texas,set up a food counter and sold hamburgers with hot mustard and a slice of onion. An article about the fair in St.Louis was published in a New York newspaper, and it mentioned the sale of hamburgers but failed to include the name of the cook. Since then, the whole world has come to know the hamburger, but no one will ever know with absolute certainty who really created it!
    現代漢堡包的起源可以追溯到德國城市漢堡。史學家稱,遷入美國的德國移民帶來了一道菜的烹飪方法,該菜由雞蛋、生碎牛肉制成。這道現在稱作塔塔爾牛排的菜是德國人從曾去過漢堡并帶去家鄉菜口味的俄國水手那兒學來的,而俄國人則顯然是從過著游牧生活的韃靼人那里學來的。
    漢堡牛排傳入新大陸時,已是肉末或肉片伴以洋蔥及辛辣料一起燒烤的肉餅。美國有關漢堡牛排的最早記載是在19世紀30年代,當時在紐約市的一家名叫德爾蒙尼科的豪華餐館有售,每個10美分。1896年,漢堡牛排首次被波士頓廚師長凡尼·法爾馬所著的著名烹飪書收錄。
    宣稱自己是現代漢堡三明治創始人的人不只一個。19世紀末20世紀初,來自威斯康星、康涅狄格、俄亥俄及得克薩斯的廚師(或他們的后裔)都曾夸口說漢堡包是他們發明的。
    一些故事里反復出現的說法是顧客需要一種便于攜帶的快餐。查理·耐格林家族稱查理于1885年在威斯康星州發明了漢堡包,當時他年僅15歲。他用黃油炸牛肉末,然后將其夾于兩片面包之間,在奧特蓋米鄉間集市上出售。接下來的64年里,查理繼續在集市上賣他的漢堡包。1900年在康涅狄格的新海溫,據說路易午餐店的店主發明了漢堡包,當時他的顧客要求既可口又快捷的食物。這是路易的孫子90年后宣稱的,他當時是這家仍在營業的小餐館的老板。
    另一說法是漢堡包是一位富有創造性的廚師在常規配料用完后即興發揮的。1892年的一天,在薩米特鄉間集市上,俄亥俄州埃克倫的弗蘭克·門奇斯及其兄弟查爾斯用以制作三明治的香腸用完了,便以牛肉餡代之。這個改變大受顧客歡迎,從此他們便專門制作牛肉三明治。1951年弗蘭克去世時,報紙上的訃告稱他因漢堡包發了一筆小財。
    關于漢堡包的起源,流傳最廣的故事源自1904年世界博覽會。來自得克薩斯州雅典城的弗雷切爾·戴維斯和他的妻子茜迪擺起了食品攤出售佐以芥末及洋蔥片的漢堡。紐約一家報紙刊載的一篇文章對這屆在圣路易舉行的博覽會予以了報道,文中提到有漢堡包出售,但未提廚師的名字。從此全世界都知道漢堡包了,但其發明者究竟是誰,誰也不敢大學英語京76~80G381中學外語教與學黛安·沃20042004You need:two sheets of the same colored paper,one sheet of paper in another color,a glass,glue,scissors,a coin,a wand(optional)1.As/Since 2.because 3.for/because 4.because...because/5.Since/As/6.Because 7.because/for 8.Because 9.Since/As 10.for/because這是短詩集《春水》中的最后一首詩歌,是全集的結束語。這首詩概括了詩人的哲學——天人相通,詩人與人世相通。閻鳳橋李端奇 湖北師范學History of the HamburgerThe quality education of the ideological and political course, keeps a educational concept and mode absolutely different from traditional education,which is full of human concern guided by "the human orientation thoughts" .In the whole process of the education, the course especially concentrates on the development, need, growth, value and personality of human.李霞 河北張家口第一中 作者:大學英語京76~80G381中學外語教與學黛安·沃20042004You need:two sheets of the same colored paper,one sheet of paper in another color,a glass,glue,scissors,a coin,a wand(optional)1.As/Since 2.because 3.for/because 4.because...because/5.Since/As/6.Because 7.because/for 8.Because 9.Since/As 10.for/because這是短詩集《春水》中的最后一首詩歌,是全集的結束語。這首詩概括了詩人的哲學——天人相通,詩人與人世相通。閻鳳橋
2013-09-10 21:36

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