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“根據關鍵詞作文”的寫作思路和方法
“根據關鍵詞作文”的寫作思路和方法
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  從對1992年1月到2002年12月間CET-6考試作文題目的分析來看,各種題型出現的機率很不均等。其中提綱作文18次,約占85.5%(題目+提綱14次,題目+提示4次);圖表作文2次,約占9.5%;關鍵詞作文1次,約占5%。從目前了解的情況看,今后出現圖表作文的可能性已不大,而關鍵詞作文出現的可能性呈上升趨勢。因此考生在充分準備提綱作文的同時,也要重視關鍵詞作文的寫作思路和方法。
  關鍵詞作文分兩種情況,考主要視具體情況采取相應的做法:
  1.如果給出的關鍵詞已經分了組,考生就可以找出每組中的核心詞,結合題目認真思考,寫出段落主題句,再根據主題句去展開各段落的寫作。
  2.如果關鍵詞沒有分組,考生首要的工作就是結合對題目的思考,認真給關鍵詞分組,從而確定段落中心,寫出段落提綱或主題句。這個前期工作做得到不到位直接關系到后面的寫作。倉促動筆,將不可避免地出現疏漏或失誤。對于寫作基礎很好的考生,建議打好草稿,將關鍵詞分組和段落提綱一步完成。
  針對上述兩種情況,可分別采取如下步驟:
  例文一
  Directions:You are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition about Invention in three paragraphs.Yon should base your composition on the following outlines.You are required to write in no less than 150 words.
  Key words and expressions:
  a.wheel,change,the way man lives
  b.microscope,computer,science and technology,advance
  c.explore space
  根據題目,可以判斷這是一篇說明文。已分組的關鍵詞框定了寫作思路。因此文章的概要就很清楚了。將文章分三段,寫出每段的主題句(主題句中無須寫進所有的關鍵詞)。
  1.There have been many inventions that have changed the way man lives.
  2.Modern inventions have advanced science and technology and made people healthier,and man's life longer.
  3.Now man has the desire to explore space.
  很明顯,第一個主題句即可看作全文的中心思想。用wheel舉例說明車輪的發明改變了人類的生活方式,引出下文。第二段可用列舉法舉出有代表性的現代發明,說明它們對人類生活所產生的影響。可能的話,還可從invention本身的某種角度作簡要解釋。第三段主要寫人類探索太空的愿望和正在進行的工作。全文要緊扣“發明”這個主題,堅持“改變”這個中心。
    Invention
  There have been many inventions that have changed the way man lives.One of the first great inventions was the wheel,which is still of importance today.The wheel makes it easier to travel a long distance.With the help of wheels people have almost explored all the land on the earth.
  Since the second half of the 19th century many great inventions have been made.Microscopes,radios,computers etc.appeard one after the other.With the advance of science and technology,people become healthier,and man's life is longer.Moreover,inventions make further inventions possible,for new machines or technology are not merely a product of the invention,but a source of fresh creative ideas.
  Now man has the desire to explore space.The first step was made when manned spacecraft landed on the moon.That was certainly just a beginning.New inventions will someday allow us to do something we have never imagined.We young people should get ready to invent something new and useful.
  例文二
  Directions:You are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on To Lie or Not to Lie with the words and expressions given in the following.You should write at least 150 words.
  Key words and expressions:
  doctor,patient,incurable illness,inform,recover,do harm,lie,tell the truth,invade the autonomy of the patient
  此篇例文給出的關鍵詞未分組。考生看到這種文題后,首先要對題目和所有的關鍵詞進行綜合思考,給關鍵詞分組:
  a.doctor,patient,incurable illness,inform
  b.lie,do harm,recover
  c.tell the truth,invade the autonomy of the patient
  由于在Directions中并未具體要求本文寫成幾段,故考生可根據文章內容靈活安排。如果考慮把To lie or not to lie的兩種觀點寫進一段里,那么擬三條提綱就可以了。如果為了突出兩種觀點的對立,則分開來寫似乎更好。加上首段和尾段,共計四段,所以需要擬四條提綱(不是主題句)。提綱在內容上要能夠囊括全部關鍵詞。
  1.Should the doctor inform the patient about the truth?
  2.Some people think the doctor should lie for the sake of the patient.
  3.Others think the doctor should tell the patient the truth.
  4.My viewpoint is...
  在以上綜合分析和完成兩個步驟的過程中,考生頭腦里還應該有個“總納”,即這是一篇議論文。首先,通過第一條提綱所寫的內容引出話題,為后文做好鋪墊。其次,二、三兩段正文部分是關鍵詞較為集中的段落,不可有遺漏。用對比法(contrast)寫是表達規定主題的最佳寫作方法。最后,第四段通過闡明自己的觀點概括全文。如此做到心中有數,寫起來就比較有把握了。
    To Lie or Not to Lie
  When a patient is suffering from an incurable illness,should the doctor or other people inform the patient about the truth?This has long been a debatable question.And there seems to be some grounds for the opposite answers.
  Some people hold that dying patients do not want to know the truth about their serious condition,and informing them risks dashing their hope,so that they could hardly recover,or their illness deteriorates faster.So we should lie to the patients for their own sake.
  While contrary to the above belief,others insist that the patients should be informed,given the truthful information,because they can make proper decisions according to their health.And the laws entitle the patients to know the truth.So telling lies to patients in fact invades the autonomy of the patients.
  As far as I am concerned,I think"to lie or not to lie"is really a doctor's dilemma.And whether doctor tells a lie or not depends on the patients themselves.If the patient is a man of strong will and positive attitude,telling the truth will help their treatment.Anyway,we should keep in mind,in case of telling the truth,that the information should be conveyed in a humane manner.
  英語通L通化G381中學外語教與學張世群20032003張世群 武漢江漢大學 作者:英語通L通化G381中學外語教與學張世群20032003
2013-09-10 21:40

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