民初思韻網

加入收藏   設為首頁
選擇語言   簡體中文
你好,請 登陸 或 注冊
首頁 人文思韻 傳奇人物 歷史思潮 時代作品 話題討論 國民思韻 民初捐助 賬戶管理
  搜索  
    歷史思潮 >>> 史地研究雜志方面文獻收集(一)
字體    

如何培養快速閱讀能力
如何培養快速閱讀能力
網載     阅读简体中文版


  新英語教學大綱要求高中英語教學要“側重培養閱讀能力”。閱讀能力通常指兩個方面,一是閱讀理解;二是閱讀速度。在一般情況下,閱讀速度和理解率總是成正比的。《教學大綱》要求:“以每分鐘40-50個詞的速度閱讀”。有些學生在日常學習中閱讀量增加了,可速度還是比較慢,達不到《大綱》要求。因此,要提高讀速,恰當的閱讀技巧與方法是重要的。筆者在數年的高中英語教學中,就如何培養學生快速閱讀能力做了初步探討,概述如下:
   一、不要逐字閱讀,要養成視讀習慣,擴大注視域
  有些學生一個一個字地閱讀,有時還邊讀邊用手或筆指著字,有的甚至把每個字都譯成漢語,例如:It's a good old American custom to celebrate the first Monday inSeptember as Labour Day and to honour allworkers.這樣做,不僅閱讀速度慢,而且用英語結構堆積起來的漢語句子來理解英語篇章,更會有偏差。
  我們要克服逐字閱讀習慣,逐漸養成一個意群一個意群地閱讀,進而一個整句一個整句閱讀的習慣,如It's good old American custom to celebrate the first Monday In September as Labour Day and to honour allworkers.全句共有21個詞,若逐詞閱讀,眼睛需注視21次,閱讀速度慢,且句子支離破碎。而按意讀,眼睛只需注視3次,這種閱讀注視域比第一種大的多,不僅閱讀速度加快,而且對句子的理解也會更完整、更透徹。
   二、瀏覽全文,整體理解,抓住主旨
  有些學生閱讀時“只見樹木,不見森林”,只會死扣文中的詞法、句法,而不是把重點放在語言表達的內容上。如整體理解全文,抓住文章的中心等。我們閱讀時,首先應瀏覽全文,對篇章內容有一個整體理解,其次弄清篇章結構、段落層次,找出段落大意和全文中心思想等。
  那么應如何尋找中心論點,抓住篇章的主旨大意,進行好這關鍵的一步呢?一般來說,中心論點常常由主題段或主題句來表達,往往一篇文章的開頭是主題段,而每一段的第一句為主題句,有時也會出現在句尾或中間,有時會同時出現在句首和句尾,而有時則根本無明顯的主題句,需要讀者從他所敘述的細節去體會他所表達的主題,也就是段落的中心思想暗含在各句中間,如:
  (1)The Redskins certainly is a very die-hard football team.Every time they play a "must win"game,they seem to find just enough strength to do it.The players never give up.The coach is always confident that the team can win when their backs are against the wall.此短文的主題句就是本文開始第一句話:The Redskins certainly is a very diehard football team.作者一起筆就給讀者提出了想寫什么。即概述開始,隨之詳細解說。
  (2)Hellen Keller was born in 1880. Whenshe was born two years old, she lost her sightand hearing as the result of an illness. In spisteof this, Hellen overcame her handicaps and atlast learned to read and write. In 1886 she became the pupil of Anne Sullivan who taughtHellen to "see" with her fingertips, to "hear"with her feet and hands,and to communicatewith other people. Miss Sullivan succeeded inarousing Hellen' s curiosity and interest byspelling the name of objects into her hand. Atthe end of three years,Hellen had masteredboth the manual and the Braille alphabet.該段的主題句不在起始句而在段落中間:In spiteof this,Hellen overcame her handicaps and atlast to read and write這種類型的語篇,開頭句子往往表述段落要論述的主題,而主題則隨之由引出的句子來表述。
  (3) Trouble, trouble, trouble! First it wasthe tires(輪胎)!I discovered two of themcompletely worn out after only one year' s use.After replacing the tires, the brakes(煞車制動器)went bad.There went 附圖G381M808.JPG150! Just when Ithought everything was working fine,the engineboiled over as I sat in a long line at the toll(過橋收費處)bridge.此段無明顯的主題句,這就要求讀者在閱讀過程中,抓住一些重要的細節和線索,然后再把這些細節和線索有機地聯系起來。從上文中,不難看出,文中所提出的細節,是圍繞car展開的,所以,自然得出結論,本段的topic就是汽車car。
  (4) You often ask"Is there any mail forme? returning home at lunch or dinner time. Ifthere is a letter, you read it eagerly, pleased thatyour friend or relative has thought of you. Otherpeople answer a friendly letter as warmly as youdo!They are happy to be remembered. But ifthe letter you write makes them feel as if youyourself were with them, speaking in your ownfriendly way,they are especially pleased. Youhave given something of yourself.And to beyourself in a letter to a friend is an art you needto master.本段主題句出現在語篇的段尾。當主題句出現在段尾時,語篇常用歸納法撰寫,表述細節的句子在前,概述性的句子在后,并以此結尾。它的目的主要是陳述依據上文的細節,歸納要點或共性以及得出觀點印象或結果。
  (5)Good manners are imprtant in allcoutries,but ways of expressing good mannersare different from country to country. Amcricanseat with knives and forks; Japanese eat withchopsticks. Americans say"Hi"when they meet;Japanese bow. Many American men open doorfor women; Japanese men do not. On the suface,it appears that good manners in America are notgood manners in Japan, and in a way this istrue. But in any country, the manners that areimportant are those involving (涉及)one people' s behavior (行為)toward another person.In all countries it is good manners to behaveconsiderately toward others and bad mannersnot to. It is only the way of behaving politelythat differs from country to country.
  此篇章的主題句在段首和段尾。在有些篇章,作者為了突出主題思想,采用前后呼應,兩次點題的寫作手法。值得注意的是,表述同一個主題思想的兩個主題句,句型結構一般不一致,內容也不是簡單的重復,多半有引申或順應其向細節的輔敘而有所側重。
  在抓住主題句的同時,要注意抓住一些關鍵詞語,因為他們也暗示著文章的主題,尤其是一些帶感情色彩的詞,如,surpisingly,fortunately,sadly等。抓住這些特定信息,來理解人物的態度,作者的意圖。
  最后,閱讀時還要特別注意把握篇章的主要脈絡及段與段之間的邏輯關系,因為它既是開啟理解全文大意的鑰匙,又是閱讀理解測試的重點。如1995年高考題閱讀A:
  Fat on human beings is distributed(分布)in different ways. Some fat people have a largestomach and no waist line-which makes themlook round, rather like apples. Other are fatterbelow the waist,which makes them appearpear-shaped(梨形的).
  There are two types of fat external fat (fatunder the skin) and internal fat (fat inside thebody wall). Doctors who have been examiningthe relationship between health and fatness,have found that the'pears' have less internalfat, but the'apples'have more internal fat thanexternal fat. This seems to be what causes thehealth problems. The best treatment for fatnessis to reduce the internal fat. But unfortunately itseems that dieting(節食)simply makes an apple-shaped person into a smaller apple and apear-shaped person into a smaller pear. At themoment there is no known way of reducing theintenal rather than the external fat.
  61.The text is mainly about____.
  A.fatness and health
  B.ways to lose weight
  C.people's figure
  D.distribution of fat
  答案是A
   三、不要見生詞就查字典,要培養推測能力
  《大綱》中規定:“閱讀生詞率不超過3%,”也就是允許讀物中有3%的生詞率。有些學生在閱讀中一遇到不熟悉的詞或詞組就急于查字典、參考書,這樣做是不可取的,一則嚴重影響了閱讀速度,二則在考試中是不允許查字典的。因此熟練地掌握判斷詞義的技巧是非常有益的。一般說來,對與主題無關或不影響全文理解的詞可略過去;對有些影響理解的詞可通過上下文,也可根據構詞法判斷詞義。如:necessary-necessarity possible-possiblity 又如:Mr Hill worked in a hospital. His medical skill was good and got a lot ofmoney. His wife always thought a few womenloved him and made him give all his pay toher. He was angry with her at it but had to do asshe said. So he bought a safe and hid somemoney in it. Of course his wife didn' t knowabout it.
  1.The word"safe"in the story means.
  a.安全的 b.保險柜 c.冷藏柜
  d.穩妥的
  該題根據上下文來體會,不難猜測safe的詞義在此為“b.保險柜”
   四、學會默讀
  默讀與朗讀是兩種技能。朗讀主要是訓練學生的語音、語調。學生朗讀一篇未讀過文章的時候,注意力往往集中在語音語調上,對文章內容則不完全理解。有時是嘴里念念有詞,心中不知所云,嚴重影響了閱讀速度。為此,一定要養成默讀的習慣,避免出聲,不要有眼腦之外其它身體部位的活動,全神貫注于篇章,以這種方式,才能達到事半功倍的閱讀效果,加快閱讀速度。
  培養快速閱讀能力,并不是一朝一夕的事情。只有經過經常不斷的實踐練習,并且運用行之有效的方法,才能養成良好的閱讀習慣,有效地提高閱讀能力,從而在高考中取得好成績。
承德民族師專學校承德G381中學外語教與學董蕤20022002董蕤 河北承德一中 作者:承德民族師專學校承德G381中學外語教與學董蕤20022002
2013-09-10 21:43

歡迎訂閱我們的微信公眾賬號!
春秋茶館訂閱號
微信號 season-tea(春秋茶館)
每天分享一篇科技/遊戲/人文類的資訊,點綴生活,啟迪思想,探討古典韻味。
  清末民初歷史人物  民初人物
革命先行者民國之父
孫中山(1866年11月12日-1925年3月12日),本名孫文,字載之,號日新、逸仙,廣東香山(今中山)人,是醫師、近代中國的民主革命家、中國國民黨總理、第一任中華民國....
孫中山的啟蒙者
近現代的嶺南,湧現出大批引領中國前行的先驅者,近代改良主義者,香港華人領袖何啟便是其中的一位。他不僅是孫中山在香港西醫書院的老師,更是孫中山走向革命道路的思想導師。
資助民初精神網
        回頂部     寫評論

 
評論集
暫無評論!
發表評論歡迎你的評論
昵稱:     登陸  註冊
主頁:  
郵箱:  (僅管理員可見)

驗證:   验证码(不區分大小寫)  
© 2011   民初思韻網-清末民初傳奇時代的發現與復興   版權所有   加入收藏    設為首頁    聯繫我們    1616導航