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某些“形近”詞組的辨析
某些“形近”詞組的辨析
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  在閱讀和使用英語中,我們不能把其中的一些“形式上相近的”詞組混淆在一起。本文對下面兩種“形近”詞組作一些簡要的辨析。
  Ⅰ.詞序互換
  1.as such和such as:
  (A)as such表示“就以這種身份或資格;就其本身而論;照這樣”等意思,其中such是代詞,其后不可再跟其他成分。例如:
  1)He is a teacher and I treat him as such.他是教師,我就按老師對待他。
  2)I didn't oppose the plan as such.就計劃本身而言,我并不反對。
  3)If you are a League member,you must show yourself as such.如果你是一個團員,就得有個團員的樣子。
  4)A leader,as such,deserves obedience.這樣的一位領導人是值得服從的。
  5)It is not a good book as such,but it has some interestingpictures.它本身算不上是一本好書,但書中卻有一些有趣的圖畫。
  6)He is not terribly interested in politics as such.他對政治本身并不特別關心。
  7)Will money as such bring you happiness?金錢本身會給你帶來幸福嗎?
  8)Names,as such,mean nothing.一個一個的姓名,本身并沒有多大意義。
  (B)such as表示“例如;諸如此類的;像……那樣的”等意思。suchas后面跟的只是一些例子,不是全部的人或物。前面提到三種事物,such as后面只能跟兩種事物或一種事物,不能跟三種事物。(suchas前面常有逗號與中心詞隔開,引導同位語)例如:
  1)Most nouns have a singular and a plural form,such as boyand boys.大多數名詞都有單數形式和復數形式,例如boy和boys。
  2)His father knows four different languages,such as Englishand French.他父親懂四種語音,譬如說英語和法語。
  3)I like drinks such as tea and coffee.我喜歡喝茶和咖啡一類的飲料。
  4)I require reference books,such as a grammar book and adictionary.我需要參考書,諸如語法書和詞典。
  such...as常用于“such+名詞+as+定語從句”結構中。例如:
  1)He gave me such a useful ballpen as I want.他給了我一支我正需要的那種有用的圓珠筆。(as在從句中作賓語)
  2)Here are such questions as are often asked by the students.這是些學生們常問的問題。(as在從句中作主語)
  3)We had such grapes as you never saw.我們有一些你從未見過的葡萄。(as在從句中作賓語)
  such...as還可用于“such(...)as+不定式”結構,表示“如此……以致”。例如:
  1)His illness was not such as to cause anxiety.他的病還不至于達到令人焦慮不安的程度。
  2)We are not such fools as to believe him.我們不會傻到相信他的程度。
  2.before long和long before:
  (A)before long表示“很快;不久”之意,其中before是介詞,而long是名詞。before long可與過去或將來時態的謂語動詞連用。例如:
  1)My book will be published before long.我的書不久就要出版。
  2)I received his letter before long.我很快就收到了他的信。
  3)We'll see that film before long.我們不久就要看那部電影。
  4)Before long they found the lost paper.不久,他們就找到了丟失的文件。
  5)Before long she came running behind me.很快,她就跑著追我來了。
  (B)long before是“很久以前”之意。其中before為副詞,long也是副詞。一般用在謂語動詞為過去完成時的句子里,有時也可用在謂語動詞為一般過去時的句子中。例如:
  1)He said he had seen the film long before.他說他很久以前就看過這部電影。
  2)I told him I had been to Beijing long before.我告訴他,我很久以前就到過北京。
  3)I had known her long before.很久以前我就認識她了。
  4)She died long before the war.早在戰前很久她就去世了。
  long before后面也可以跟從句。這時,before為連詞。例如:
  1)I had heard about you long before I met you.與你見面之前我就久聞你的大名了。
  2)I had read the novel long before you read it.你看的這部小說我很久以前就看過了。
  3)I knew Mr Smith long before I knew you.早在認識你之前我就認識史密斯先生了。
  3.far from和from far:
  (A)far from是“遠離;非常不;決不;非但不……反而”等意。作“非常不;決不”解時,其后跟形容詞。作“非但不……反而”解時,其后跟動名詞。例如:
  1)The city is far from here.城市離這里很遠。
  2)They wandered far from home.她們遠離家鄉,四處流浪。
  3)Your work is far from(being)satisfactory.你的工作一點兒也不能令人滿意。
  4)He is far from poor.他決不貧窮。
  5)Far from admiring his paintings,I dislike them intensely.我非但不欽佩,反而十分討厭他的畫。
  6)Far from praising him,I'll criticize him.我不但不會表揚他,反而要批評他。
  注:"far from it"是習語,意為“差得遠;決不是那么一回事”。例如:
  I don't blame him-far from it.我不責備他,一點兒也不。
  (B)from far作“從遠方”解,其中far是名詞。例如:
  1)I received a letter from far.我收到一封遠方的來信。
  2)The stranger has come from far.那個陌生人從遠方來。
  4.if only和only if:
  (A)if only是“只要;要是;但愿”之意。if only作“只要”解時,重點在if,表示基本條件。if only作“要是;但愿”解時,其后的從句中用虛擬語氣,表達說話人的愿望(或非真實條件)。例如:
  1)If only you study hard,you'll pass the exam.只要你努力學習,你考試一定會及格。
  2)If only you don't lose heart,you'll find a way to overcomethe difficulty.只要不灰心,你就能找到克服困難的辦法。
  3)If only he were at home!他現在要是在家就好了![現在他沒在家]
  4)If only I had seen him!那時要是我見到他就好了![那時我沒見他]
  5)If only he arrives on time!但愿他按時到達![表示對將來的愿望]
  (B)only if是“只有”之意,重點在only。例如:
  1)Only if he does his best,he'll succeed.(=He will onlysucceed if he does his best.)他只有竭盡全力才會取得成功。
  1)Only if you promise him that you won't invite Mary,he willcome.(=He'll only come if you promise me that you won'tinvite Mary.)只有你答應不邀請瑪麗,他才會來。
  5.too much和much too:
  (A)too much作“太多;過分;受不了”解,其中too作much的修飾語,表示超越much的正常程度。例如:
  1)You're asking too much.你問得太多了。
  2)He protested too much to be sincere.他反對得太多,不可能是真誠的。
  3)I cannot thank you too much.我無論怎樣感謝你也不為過分。
  4)This experiment is too much for me.做這個實驗我吃不消。
  (B)much too表示“實在太……”之意,用來修飾其后的形容詞或副詞,作狀語用。其中much作too的修飾語,增加too的程度。例如:
  1)This coat is much too large for me.這件大衣我穿起來實在太大了。
  2)This box is much too heavy.這只箱子實在太重了。
  3)I'm much too tired to go out.我累得實在不能出去了。
  4)Our general manager is much too busy to see visitors.我們的總經理實在太忙,不能會見客人。
  6.as much和much as:
  (A)as much表示“同樣多少的;同樣的事物;同樣的情況”之意。例如:
  1)I like tea,but I like coffee as much.我愛喝茶,也同樣愛喝咖啡。
  2)Give me as much again.再給我那么多。
  3)Please help me get this job-you know I would do as muchfor you.求你幫我搞到這份工作——你要知道,我也會同樣幫你辦事的。
  (B)much as是“雖然,盡管,即使”之意,用來引導讓步狀語從句。much as=although/though。例如:
  1)Much as it was cold,I went swimming.盡管天冷,我還是去游泳了。
  2)Much as I like it,I can't afford it.盡管我很喜歡它,卻買不起。
  3)Much as I hate to do it,I must stay home and study tonight.雖然我不喜歡那樣做,但今晚還得呆在家里學習。
  4)Much as the new process has many advantages,there arestill some weak points in it.盡管這項新工藝有許多優點,但它本身還是存在某些弱點的。
  5)Much as I admire his courage,I don't think he acted wisely.我雖然佩服他的勇氣,但我卻認為他這樣做并不明智。
  二、一個冠詞之差:
  1.at table和at the table:
  (A)at table是“吃飯”之意。例如:
  1)They were at table when I got to his house.當我到他家時,他們正在吃飯。
  2)It is bad manners to blow your nose at table.吃飯時擤鼻涕是不禮貌的。
  (B)at the table是“在桌旁”之意。例如:
  They were sitting at the table playing cards.他們坐在桌旁玩紙牌。
  2.in charge of和in the charge of:
  (A)in charge of是“管理;照料;負責;主持”之意。主體是人。例如:
  1)Mr Wang is in charge of Class Two.王先生負責二班。
  2)The nurse was left in charge of the children.保姆留下來照料孩子們。
  3)Who is in charge of the money for safekeeping?誰負責保管這筆錢?
  4)The person in charge of the construction received us.工地的負責人接待了我們。
  (B)in the charge of是“由……照料(負責,管理)”之意。主體是被照料的物或人。例如:
  1)The documents are in the charge of Mr Liu.這些文件由劉先生保管。
  2)The girl was safely in the charge of a nurse.這個女孩由保姆照料,很安全。
  3)This operation is in the charge of Doctor Jackson.這次手術由杰克遜大夫負責。
  3.in front of和in the front of:
  (a)in front of(=before)是“在……前面”之意,指的是“在某個地方范圍以外的前面”。例如:
  1)There is a bus-stop in front of our school.在我們學校前面有一個公共汽車停靠站。
  2)There are some trees in front of the house.房子前面有一些樹。
  3)Oliver could scarcely see anything in front of him.奧利弗幾乎看不見他前面的任何東西。
  4)Would you like to sit in front of us?請你坐在我們的前面好嗎?
  5)We couldn't read the notice on the board because severalpeople were standing in front of it.我們看不到布告欄上貼的公告,因為有幾個人正站在它前面。
  (B)in the front of表示“在……的前部”之意,指的是“在一個地方范圍之內的前部”。例如:
  1)The teacher stands in the front of the classroom.教師站在教室的前部。
  2)The introduction is always in the front of the book.前言總是放在書的前部。
  3)She is sitting in the front of the car with the driver.她跟司機一起坐在車子的前部。
  4)The singer stood in the front of the stage.唱歌者站在舞臺的前部。
  5.in word和in a word:
  (A)in word是“口頭上;表面上”之意。例如:
  1)We should not serve the people in word.我們不應該只是在口頭上為人民服務。
  2)He is faithful in word and deed.他一言一行都很忠實。
  (B)in a word是“總而言之;一句話”之意。例如:
  1)In a word,don't lose heart because of failure.總之,不要由于失敗而灰心喪氣。
  2)John is smart,polite,and well-behaved.In a word,he isadmirable.約翰聰明伶俐,彬彬有禮,行為端正,總之,他值得夸獎。
  6.in body和in a body:
  (A)in body是“親自”之意。例如:
  1)I observed the incident in body.我親眼目睹這個事件。
  2)He checked the report in body.他親自審查這個報告。
  (B)in a body是“一道;一齊;全體一致地”之意。例如:
  1)They started off in a body.他們全體人員一道出發了。
  2)The students of our class marched in a body into the hall.我班同學全體走進禮堂。
  7.in care of和in the care of:
  (A)in care of是“由……轉交”之意。例如:
  1)He wrote me in care of a friend of mine.他寫的信由我的朋友轉交給我。
  2)Send the money to me in care of the firm.此款由該公司轉交給我。
  〔注〕in care of可縮寫為c/o(由……轉交)。
  (B)in the care of是“由……照顧/管理”之意。主體是被照顧的人或物。例如:
  1)The household is in the care of Mother.這一家人全由媽媽來照料。
  2)The documents are in the care of the secretary.這些文件由秘書來管理。
  8.in case of和in the case of:
  (A)in case of是“如果;萬一;要是;以防;以備”之意。例如:
  1)In case of my absence,who will take my place?要是我不能來,誰將頂替我呢?
  2)In case of rain,the picnic will be put off.萬一天下雨,野餐將推遲進行。
  3)Keep an umbrella in case of rain.帶把雨傘以防下雨。
  (B)in the case of是“就……來說;至于;關于;提到”之意。例如:
  1)Poverty,in the case of John,was considered honourable.對于約翰來說,貧窮被當作榮譽來看待。
  2)In the case of a physical change,no new substance is formed.就物理變化而言,并不產生任何新的物質。
  9.out of question和out of the question:
  (A)out of question是“毫無疑問;肯定;不在話下;的確”之意。例如:
  1)It is out of question that he will pass the exam.毫無疑問,他考試會及格的。
  2)Your success is out of question.你肯定會成功的。
  3)It is out of question that he is my close friend.他無疑是我的親密朋友。
  (B)out of the question是“不可能的;辦不到的;不能考慮的”之意。例如:
  1)What you say is out of the question.你所說的是辦不到的。
  2)To finish the work in two days is out of the question.兩天內做完這項工作是不可能的。
  3)Before liberation,it was out of the question for childrenof poor parents to get an education.解放前,窮人的孩子受教育是不可能的。
  4)His plan is out of the question.他的計劃根本不能考慮。
  5)She didn't study English,so it was out of the question forher to follow what the Englishman said.她沒有學過英語,因此她根本不可能聽懂那個英國人所說的話。
中學英語園地開封G381中學外語教與學孟國凱20032003孟國凱 浙江金華五中 作者:中學英語園地開封G381中學外語教與學孟國凱20032003
2013-09-10 21:45

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