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  寫作 根據提示的情景用英語寫出一段100~120詞的通順恰當的短文。不必根據中文逐字逐句翻譯。
  小明每天放學后踢一小時足球。
  有人認為這是浪費時間。
  有人認為這有利于學習。
  我的看法是……
  講解:
  從學習英語的角度來看,中國學生學習用英文寫短文的目的一般不外乎兩個。第一是檢驗自己運用英語的能力:將思想訴諸筆端,語言上的任何問題都會躍然紙上,因而這個過程有助于學習者發觀問題,進而解決問題。第二是學習怎樣更好地表達自己的觀點。寫作時有充裕的時間來比較、醞釀,還可以查找工具書。一些好的表現法往往是在寫作時發現的,然后將其內化、使其成為表達自己思想的語言單位。相對于前者來說,后者對于學習寫作者倒恰恰顯得更為重要。因為嚴格地說,寫作課畢竟不是語法課,更不是精讀課,而是這兩門課的自然延伸。現在筆者就這個題目,就事論事地談一談怎樣寫好這段短文。
  面對題目,初學寫作者多少會面臨一個無從下手的問題,即使勉強動筆,所寫也只是中文提示的翻譯,因而難以成文。這是思想囿于提示、缺乏聯想(抑或聯想受制于表達手段的匱乏)所致。我們現在試著將提示所示的事實一句一句地加以表達和擴展:
  1.Xiao Ming plays football for an hour after school everyday in the afternoon.
  這句后半部分被一連串的表示時間的狀語拖累。這種句子干巴巴,充其量只是一個提綱而已。即使將其改成:
  Every day in the afternoon,Xiao Ming plays football for an hour after school.
  也不能視為有效的句子,因為無論如何改動位子,在一句中設置那么多的時間狀語是不足為取的。現在我們不妨將這句改寫一下:
  My friend,Xiao Ming,a high school football star,spends anhour each day practicing drills and honing his skills.
  去掉了部分的時間狀語,并插入了新的內容后,句子就顯得自然生動(若一定要表達“每天放學后”這個概念,則可將其留作后面的句子的時間狀語),但似乎還可以再作一點補充:
  My friend,Xiao Ming,a high school football star,spends anhour each day practicing drills and honing his skill;playingfootball is an integral part of his life.
  然后可作一些聯想和發揮:
  a.He loves spending time on the field,working with his teammates and building on his own natural talents.
  b.Xiao Ming thinks about football all the time and uses the lessons he has learned in practice,such as discipline and perseverance,in the other activities of his life as well.
  c.He often compares school to a difficult football match,knowing that he must continue to study and work hard eventhought he is faced with setbacks,and that success often comesonly after a great deal of effort.
  2.Some people think that this is a waste of time.
  這一提綱式句子的內容也可以用如下的方式表述:
  I have heard some of our friends say that this practicingis a waste of time and that Xiao Ming should find somethingbetter to do with his afternoons than play a game.
  句中的...something better to do...亦可用...something more useful to do...或...something more worthwhile to do...等來替代。
  接著可以再作聯想:
  But I have noticed that even our friends who criticizeXiao Ming cheer loudly when he scores and they never miss achance to see him play.
  3.Others think that playing footballl is beneficial forhis studies.
  這個內容可以寫得具體一點:
  a.Some of our other friends,however,believe that Xiao Minguses his time well since sports make his body strong,and keephim healthy.
  b.They think that sports and games are also very useful forcharacter training.
  c.They think that playing football strengthens him mentallyas well as physically.
  --Doing sports makes you push yourself to do better,torun faster,to get stronger,to jump higher,to keep goinglonger and so on and so forth.
  --It improves your willpower.
  --In a match,the feeling when you win is amazing,but youalso have to learn to accept defeat.
  --You have to remind yourself that if you have tried yourhardest,you've done the best you could do,that in itself is akind of viotory.
  --And the same thing is true in the other areas of yourlife,be it studying,work or whatever.
  --Also,playing football teaches you how to get along withother people and how to work together with them,which areuseful lessons for life in general.
  4.Personally I believe that...
  這里有兩種可能性,寫作者既能站在前者一邊,亦能贊同后者的觀點。不過,筆者不敢冒天下之大不韙。然而,即使取后者之意,也不宜重復所言。畢竟,像運動的好處這一類的話題,另換一個角度來加以闡述也不算太難:
  a.I think Xiao Ming spends his time wisely.
  b.Playing football is a wonderful thing that life has tooffer.
  c.This makes him a better person because he's happier,morewell-rounded,and he has a very useful skill.
  d.Being a student and a footballer at the same time.he needsto learn how to budget his time,and therefore.he learns to bevery efficient in his studies.
  e.It enables him to be a well-rounded edu cated person.
  f.And therefore,sports are not only a game,but a way of...
  上述的分析和句意的擴展,旨在啟發讀者對于這一題目的理解,以便在動筆之前做到心中有數,爾后根據表達重心的需要布局謀篇。不少學生害怕寫作,其實,這樣大可不必。學習本是一件開心的事,只有心情愉快,學習才有效率,才能寫出令人愉快的作品。另外,提示規定的字數只是一個大致的量化范圍,讀者不必為之斤斤計較。
  要寫好作文,必須在平時要有所積累。多讀、多思對于我們在寫作時把握文章的內容和形式大有好處。從真正的意義上來說,寫作課并不是糾纏于某個意義怎樣表達,而是研究用哪一種組合方式表達某個意義最為合適。這就要求我們需要有一定量的積累,具體而言,在平時的學習過程中要多做一個有心人。具體的寫作過程是一個極具個人色彩的創作過程,筆者自然無權干預。以下所附范文僅供讀者參考:
  范文
  My friend,Xiao Ming,a high school football star,spends anhour each day practicing drills and honing his skills.It isvery beneficial for Xiao Ming to get out of the classroom andhave a change of pace in his day.Yet,I have heard some of ourfriends say that Xiao Ming should find something better to dowith his afternoons than play a game.Some of our other friends,however,believe that Xiao Ming uses his time well sinceplaying sports makes him a better,more alert,and moreinterested student in class.I think that Xiao Ming spends histime wisely.His football practice allows him to enjoy lifemore because his day has more variety and keeps himinterested in school while he is there.
《英語自學》滬G381中學外語教與學周維家20012001 作者:《英語自學》滬G381中學外語教與學周維家20012001
2013-09-10 21:47

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