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薩爾瓦多·達利:一個沒有發瘋的瘋子
薩爾瓦多·達利:一個沒有發瘋的瘋子
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薩爾瓦多•達利1904年在西班牙菲格拉斯出世時,他實際上已是第三個薩爾瓦多•達利了。父親名叫薩爾瓦多,他還有個在自己出生前9個月去世的哥哥。由于在第一個孩子死亡和第二個孩子出生的日期之間存在不可思議的巧合,薩爾瓦多•達利的父母將他們的第二個兒子當作了第一個兒子的轉世。實際上,達利就被告知自己是死去哥哥的轉世,而他也承認對死去兄長幽靈般的記憶一直伴隨著他的一生。他在幾篇文字中提到,施加在他身上的雙重壓力,即既要做自己,又要當死去的哥哥,讓他產生了對衰敗和腐爛的特別癡迷。這就是他畫中腐爛的尸體、昆蟲這些令人驚恐的形象的成因。另外,達利經常遭到當地學童的捉弄,他們朝他扔昆蟲,特別是蚱蜢。蚱蜢成了達利表達厭惡和恐懼的獨特象征,特別是在他的超現實主義時期。因而,達利生命頭7年的事情可以說對他的心靈產生了巨大影響,從而也決定了他的命運。

 

達利在10歲左右開始熱衷于畫畫,他10來歲時的畫作大多是菲格拉斯周圍的風景。1917年,達利的父親在家舉辦了一場兒子木炭畫的小型展覽。薩爾瓦多•達利的才華首次令人們驚嘆不已,而以后這樣的時刻還多得很。

 

當達利的母親1921年去世時,他認為自己基本上已是個印象派畫家。雖然他父親在其后不久就娶了亡妻的妹妹,但對達利來說,這是一段混亂不安的時期,因為他正掙扎著培養自己的成熟個性,以擺脫家庭、特別是父親的影響。在那之后不久,達利1922年被繪畫、雕塑、雕刻專門學院錄取,也就是馬德里的圣費爾南多美術學院。

 

達利一通過入學考試,就搬進了學生宿舍。在那里,他注定遇上了他那個時代的其他杰出青年。大約在1923年,達利開始嘗試立體派藝術,經常獨自鎖在屋中。當他的同伴發現他在私下創作立體派繪畫時,達利立即變成校園人物,從西班牙一個知識青年先鋒派藝術團體的一名普通成員一躍而為它的先導。

 

1926年,達利被圣費爾南多學院開除,原因是他拒絕參加期末口試。當得知期末考試的話題是拉斐爾時,達利宣稱自己對這個話題的了解要比考官多得多,因而拒絕參加考試。開除為他的經歷增添了一個有趣的波折:們時代最具影響的超現實主義畫家居然從未獲得過正式的藝術學位。

 

1928年,隨著賓州匹茲堡卡內基國際博覽會展出了他的油畫《面包籃》 (P.25:圖1),達利首次獲得真正的國際知名度。這一幅相片般現實主義的作品是達利掌握又一種藝術風格的力證。隨著達利的成熟,荷蘭藝術大師美麗而又逼真的畫作,比如像簡•弗美爾的作品深深影響著他。

 

1929年,在薩爾瓦多•達利身上發生的兩件事情使他加速邁向偉大。首先是他與加拉•艾呂雅在卡達克斯的偶然相遇。那時她是法國著名詩人保羅•艾呂雅的妻子,但是一遇上達利,他們就變得無法分離了。另一個重要的事件是,同年達利決定正式加入巴黎的超現實主義組織。1月,他在菲格拉斯與路易斯•布奈爾碰頭,一起為后來名為《一條安達盧西亞的狗》的電影撰寫劇本。他還在巴黎的高曼美術館舉行了首場個人畫展,他的事業很快便如日中天。然而,這一切成就也是要付出代價的。因為不滿達利與加拉的關系,父親將他趕出家門,這一隔閡將近30年后才得到化解。

 

由于收入匱乏,加拉和達利住進了家鄉北部名叫波爾•利加特的一個小村莊的一間小木屋。在那里,他們度過了許多離群索居的時光,依靠達利出賣大量粗制的畫為生。1937年,達利游歷意大利,接受了較為傳統的畫風;再加上他的政治觀點(他是佛朗哥將軍的支持者),他被巴黎的超現實主義團體開除了。

 

在所有的超現實主義成就里,有一項獨占鰲頭,那就是由達利創造的“偏執狂批判法”。那是一種感覺現實的敏感或方法,達利自己將它定義為基于“譫妄解釋”的“非理性認知”。簡單來講,這是達利發現全新獨特的視角來觀察他周圍世界的過程,是這位藝術家或觀察者在同一構圖中發現多種形象的能力。這一概念能同馬克思•恩斯特的擦印畫法或達芬奇的信筆而畫和素描相媲美。實際上,所有人在注視墻上的灰泥或天空的云朵時都看到了其中不同的形象,就都運用了“偏執狂批判法”。達利將這個人類獨有的特點提升為自己的藝術形式。

 

達利雖然不是真正的偏執狂,但卻能夠不靠藥物的作用模擬偏執狂的狀態,一旦回到“正常的視角”,他就能畫出在偏執狀態下所看到和想像的東西。

 

達利能夠創造他所謂的“手繪的夢幻照片”,這是他在偏執狀態中所看到的幻覺和形象的有形的繪畫表現。雖然他自己確實受到心理問題的重壓,但可以說,達利的妄想和偏執幻覺并沒有完全控制了他的理智,因為他能用自己非凡的畫技將它們在油畫布上表現出來。正是在這個背景之下,達利最著名的一句話才有了全新的意義和理解。

 

瘋子的惟一區別在于并不瘋!”

 

  實際上,達利正是運用“偏執狂批判法”進入了現實另外的層面,他的感知與日常的現實顯然不同。他接受的超現實主義訓練對他幫助很大,但是,像1940年《和消失的伏爾泰胸像在一起的奴隸市場》(圖2)這樣的畫作表明,達利當時甚至正在迅速超越超現實主義的影響。他正在形成一種完全獨特的風格,這種風格成了藝術上的一個分水嶺,將超現實與日常經驗融合,將它帶給每一個人。

達利1940年移居美國并一直待到1948年。達利的晚年作品經常涉及宗教主題,風格趨向古典。薩爾瓦多•達利于1989年1月23日逝世。

 

Salvador Dali: A Madman That Is Not Mad

 

When Salvador Dalí was born in 1904 in Figueras, Spain, he was actually the third Salvador Dalí. His father was named Salvador, and he had an older brother, who had died 9 months before Dalí's own birth. Because of the incredibly coincidental dates between the death of the first child and the birth of the second, Salvador Dalí's parents chose to look at the second son as a reincarnation1 of the first. Salvador Dalí was actually told that he was the reincarnation of his dead brother, and Dalí himself admitted that the ghostly memory of this lost sibling was to haunt him for the rest of his life. He said in several of his writings that the dualistic2 stresses imposed upon him, that of living both as himself, and his dead brother, caused in him a particular obsession with decay and putrefaction3. This is where many of his disturbing images like decaying corpses, insects began forming. In addition, Dalí was teased by the local schoolchildren, who often threw insects, especially grasshoppers4 at him. The grasshopper became a distinct symbol of revulsion5 and horror for Dalí, especially during his Surrealist6 period. Thus it can be said that the events of Dalí's first 7 years of life profoundly influenced his psyche7 and thus his destiny.

  

Dalí began painting in earnest at about the age of 10. Most of the works done by Dalí as a young teenager were of the landscape surrounding Figueras. In 1917, Dalí's father arranged a small exhibition of his son's charcoal8 drawings at their home. It was to be the first of many occasions in which people would marvel at the wonder of Salvador Dalí's abilities.

  

At the time that Dalí's mother died in 1921, Dalí thought of himself mainly as a Impressionist9 painter. Although Dalí's father remarried his late wife's sister soon thereafter, this was a turbulent time for Dalí , as he struggled to form his own adult identity away from that of his family, and especially his father. Soon thereafter, in 1922, Dalí was accepted at the Special School of Painting, Sculpture, and Engraving, also known as the Academia de San Fernando, in Madrid.

  

Once he passed the entrance exams, Dalí moved into the Residencia de Estudiantes (the student dormitories) where he was destined to meet with other great young minds of his time. It was in about 1923 that Dalí first started to experiment with cubism10, often locked away in the seclusion11 of his own room. When his peers discovered him secretly at work on the Cubist paintings, he instantly became of a campus personality, vaulting12 from standard membership to a leader of an avant-garde group of young Spanish intellectuals.

  

In 1926 Dalí was expelled from the San Fernando Academy, because of his refusal to take his final oral exams. When told that the final exam topic would be about Raphael13, Dalí exclaimed that he knew much more about the subject than did his examiners, and thus he refused to take the test. His expulsion14 adds an interesting twist to his story that the most influential Surrealist painter of our time never actually obtained a formal art degree.

  

It was in 1928 that Dalí first obtained true international exposure, when his oil painting Basket of Bread was shown at the Carnegie International Exposition in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania. This photo realistic work is a fine example of Dalí's mastery over yet another artistic style. Painting in the beautiful and so real style of the Dutch masters, works like the paintings of Jan Vermeer15 heavily influ enced Dalí as he was maturing.

  

In 1929, two things happened to Salvador Dalí that hastened him down the path to greatness. First was his chance meeting with Gala Éluard in 1929 in Cadaqués. She was at that point the wife of the famous French poet, Paul Éluard16, but as soon as she and Dalí met, they became inseparable. The other important event was that Dalí decided to formally join the Paris Surrealists in this same year. In January, he met with Luis Bunuel in Figueras to work on a script for the film which would eventually be known as Un chien andalou (An Andalusian Dog). He also had his first one man show in Paris at Goeman's Gallery, and was soon on his way to the top. However, there was a price to pay for all this success. Disapproving of his relationship with Gala, Dalí's father threw him out of the house, starting an estrangement17 that would last almost 30 years before being healed.

  

With no income to support them, Gala and Dalí moved into a small shack18 in a small village called Port Ligat, to the north. There they spent many secluded hours together, as Dalí churned out19 paintings which could be sold to support them. In 1937 Dalí visited Italy and adopted a more traditional style; this together with his political views (he was a supporter of General Franco20) made Dalí expelled from the Surrealist Group of Paris.

  

Of all the Surrealism achievements, there is one that stands out above all the others. The Paranoiac21 Critical Method was a sensibility, or way of perceiving reality that was developed by Salvador Dalí. It was defined by Dalí himself as “irrational knowledge” based on a “delirium22 of interpretation.” More simply put, it was a process by which the artist found new and unique ways to view the world around him. It is the ability of the artist or the viewer to perceive multiple images within the same configuration23. The concept can be compared to Max Ernst's24 frottage25 or Leonardo da Vinci's26 scribbling27 and drawings. As a matter of fact, all of us have practiced the Paranoiac Critical Method when gazing at stucco28 on a wall, or clouds in the sky, and seeing different shapes therein. Dalí elevated this uniquely human characteristic into his own artform.

  

Dalí, though not a true paranoid, was able to simulate a paranoid state, without the use of drugs, and upon his return to “normal perspective” he would paint what he saw and envisioned therein.

  

Dalí was able to create what he called “hand painted dream photographs” which were physical, painted representations of the hallucinations29 and images he would see while in his paranoid state. Although he certainly had his own load of mental problems to bear, it can be said that Dalí's delusions and paranoid hallucinations did not totally dominate his mind, as he was able to convey them to canvas with his miraculous skill. It is in this context that one of Dalí's most famous statements takes on a whole new meaning and understanding.

  

“The only difference between myself and a madman, is that I am not mad!”

  

Indeed, Dalí used his very Paranoiac Critical Method to enter alternate levels of reality, in which his perceptions were markedly different from everyday reality. His Surreal training had served him well, but paintings like Slave Market with Disappearing Bust of Voltaire 1940, showed that he was quickly outgrowing even their influence. He was developing a style totally unique that would become a watershed30 event in art, that of integrating the surreal with the everyday, so as to offer it to everyone.

  

Dalí moved to the U.S. in 1940, where he remained until 1948. His later paintings, often on religious themes, are more classical in style. Salvador Dalí died on January 23, 1989.

 

注釋:

1.reincarnation [ri:inkB:5neiF(E)n] n.(靈魂的)轉世化身;再生化身

2.dualistic [7djU:E5listik] a. 兩重性的;二元的

3.putrefaction [7pju:tri5fAkFEn] n. 腐爛(過程);腐敗(過程)

4.grasshopper [5^rB:shRpE(r)] n. [昆] 蚱蜢;蝗蟲

5.revulsion [ri5vQlFEn] n. 厭惡;強烈反感

6.surrealist [sE5riElist] a. 超現實主義的(一種以下意識、夢幻、本能為創作源泉的文藝流派,由法國作家André Breton于1924年首創)

7.psyche [5psaiki] n. 心靈,精神;自

8.charcoal [5tFB:kEul] n. 木炭畫,炭筆畫

9.impressionist [im5preFEnist] a. 印象派的(19世紀末出現于法國的一個藝術流派,注重繪畫中對外光的研究和表現,以Claude Monet、Vincentvan Gogh為代表)

10.cubism [5kju:bizm] n.(繪畫等的)立方主義,立體主義,立體派(20世紀初出現于法國的一個藝術流派,把物體或人改為幾何形或立方塊的組合,以Picasso、Braque等為代表)

11.seclusion [si5klu:VEn] n. 隔絕;隱居

12.vault [vC:lt] vi.(一躍而)達到特定程度

13.Raphael [5rAfeiEl] 拉斐爾(1483~1520,意大利文藝復興盛期畫家、建筑師,主要作品有梵蒂岡宮中的壁畫《圣禮的辯論》和《雅典學派》,其他代表作有《西斯廷圣母》、《基督顯圣容》等)

14.expulsion [iks5pQlFEn] n. 驅逐,逐出;開除

15.Jan Vermeer [dVB:n vE5meir] 弗美爾(1632~1675,荷蘭風俗畫家,亦作肖像及風景畫,以善用色彩表現空間感及光的效果著稱,作品有《擠奶女工》、《情書》、《站在維吉那琴前的少婦》等)

16. Paul Éluard [eilju:5a:r] 艾呂雅(1895~1952,法國詩人,曾提倡達達主義和超現實主義,第二次世界大戰期間參加抵抗運動,1942年加入法國共產黨,作品有詩集《詩與真理》、《和德國人會面》等)

17. estrangement [i5streindVmEnt] n. 疏遠;隔離

18.shack [FAk] n. 簡陋木屋,棚屋

19.churn out [tFE:n] 粗制濫造出

20.Franco [5frB:NkEu] 佛朗哥(1892~1975,西班牙獨裁者,長槍黨首領,發動反共和政府的叛亂[1936],奪取政權[1939]后,任元首兼大元帥,第二次世界大戰中支持德、意法西斯侵略戰爭)

21.paranoiac [7pArE5nCiAk] a.(似)偏執狂的

22.delirium [di5liriE m] n. 譫妄,說胡語,神志失常

23.configuration [kEn7fi^ju5reiFEn] n. 布局;構形;外形

24.Max Ernst [\: nst] 恩斯特(1891~1976,德裔法國畫家和雕刻家、超現實義真實派創始人,使用拓印法和移畫印花法進行潛意識創作,作品有《自然歷史》、《大樹林》等)

25.frottage [5frCtB:V] n. 擦印畫法(將紙或畫布放在不平的有圖形的表面上,通過擦印而拓取藝術圖案的技法)

26.Leonardo da Vinci達芬奇(1452~1519,意大利文藝復興時期畫家、雕塑家、建筑師和工程師,在藝術和科學方面均有創造性見解和成就,代表作有壁畫《最后的晚餐》、祭壇畫《巖下圣母》及肖像畫《蒙娜•麗莎》等,著有《繪畫論》)

27.scribbling [5skribliN] n. 亂涂;亂畫

28.stucco [5stQkEu] n. [建] 粉飾灰泥,灰墁

29.hallucination [hE7lu:si5neiFEn] n. 幻覺;由幻覺產生的形象(或聲音等)

30.watershed [5wC:tEFed] n.〈喻〉分水嶺;轉折點;重要關頭

2011-11-03 00:23

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