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附錄 蔣經國大事年表
附錄 蔣經國大事年表
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附錄三:1951-1988臺灣戰後國民所得常用資料統計表

 

 

 

 

 

國民所得統計常用資料(68SNA)

 

 

  

期中人口

平均匯率

經濟 成長率

國內生產毛額(GDP)

平均每人 GDP

國民生產毛額(GNP)

平均每人 GNP

國民所得(NI)

平均每人所得

  

元/美元

百萬元

百萬美元

美元

百萬元

百萬美元

美元

百萬元

百萬美元

美元

1951

8,255,000

10.30 

… 

12,328

1,197

1,493

145

12,321 

1,196

1,493

145

11,611

1,127

1,407 

137

1952

8,541,000

10.30 

11.97 

17,251

1,675

2,020

196

17,247 

1,674

2,019

196

16,335

1,586

1,913 

186

1953

8,822,000

15.55 

9.33 

22,955

1,476

2,602

167

22,951 

1,476

2,602

167

21,796

1,402

2,471

159

1954

9,134,000

15.55 

9.54 

25,204

1,621

2,759

177

25,200 

1,621

2,759

177

23,824

1,532

2,608

168

1955

9,480,000

15.55 

8.11 

29,981

1,928

3,163

203

29,978 

1,928

3,162

203

28,331

1,822

2,989

192

1956

9,823,000

24.78 

5.50 

34,410

1,389

3,503

141

34,403 

1,388

3,502

141

32,377

1,307

3,296

133

1957

10,133,000

24.78 

7.36 

40,173

1,621

3,965

160

40,118 

1,619

3,959

160

37,535

1,515

3,704 

149

1958

10,460,000

24.78 

6.71 

44,966

1,815

4,299

173

44,785 

1,807

4,282

173

41,880

1,690

4,004 

162

1959

10,806,000

36.38 

7.65 

51,833

1,425

4,797

132

51,677 

1,420

4,782

131

48,130

1,323

4,454 

122

1960

11,155,000

36.38 

6.31 

62,507

1,718

5,603

154

62,480 

1,717

5,601

154

58,106

1,597

5,209 

143

1961

11,510,000

40.00 

6.88 

70,043

1,751

6,085

152

69,960 

1,749

6,078

152

65,214

1,630

5,666 

142

1962

11,857,000

40.00 

7.90 

77,159

1,929

6,507

163

77,049 

1,926

6,498

162

71,806

1,795

6,056 

151

1963

12,210,000

40.00 

9.35 

87,252

2,181

7,146

179

87,139 

2,178

7,137

178

81,288

2,032

6,657 

166

1964

12,570,000

40.00 

12.20 

101,966

2,549

8,112

203

101,982 

2,550

8,113

203

95,073

2,377

7,563 

189

1965

12,928,000

40.00 

11.13 

112,627

2,816

8,712

218

112,433 

2,811

8,697

217

104,844

2,621

8,110 

203

1966

13,283,000

40.00 

8.91 

126,022

3,151

9,487

237

125,925 

3,148

9,480

237

117,526

2,938

8,848 

221

1967

13,617,000

40.00 

10.71 

145,817

3,645

10,708

268

145,494 

3,637

10,685

267

135,587

3,390

9,957 

249

1968

13,945,000

40.00 

9.17 

169,904

4,248

12,184

305

169,446 

4,236

12,151

304

157,796

3,945

11,316 

283

1969

14,264,000

40.00 

8.95 

196,845

4,921

13,800

345

196,598 

4,915

13,783

345

182,641

4,566

12,804 

320

157

蔣經國晚年政治改革的背景(1975-1988                                                                                                                       

  

期中人口

平均匯率

經濟 成長率

國內生產毛額(GDP)

平均每人 GDP

國民生產毛額(GNP)

平均每人 GNP

國民所得(NI)

平均每人所得

  

元/美元

百萬元

百萬美元

美元

百萬元

百萬美元

美元

百萬元

百萬美元

美元

1970

14,565,000

40.00 

11.37 

226,805

5,670

15,572

389

226,393 

5,660

15,544

389

209,985

5,250

14,417 

360

1971

14,865,000

40.00 

12.90 

263,676

6,592

17,738

443

263,554 

6,589

17,730

443

243,889

6,097

16,407 

410

1972

15,142,000

40.00 

13.32 

316,172

7,904

20,880

522

316,240 

7,906

20,885

522

291,905

7,298

19,278 

482

1973

15,427,000

38.25 

12.83 

410,405

10,730

26,603

696

410,289 

10,727

26,596

695

378,952

9,907

24,564

642

1974

15,709,000

38.00 

1.16 

549,577

14,463

34,985

921

549,400 

14,458

34,974

920

509,092

13,397

32,408

853

1975

16,001,000

38.00 

4.93 

589,651

15,517

36,851

970

586,307 

15,429

36,642

964

541,011

14,237

33,811

890

1976

16,329,000

38.00 

13.86 

707,710

18,624

43,341

1,141

702,694 

18,492

43,033

1,132

645,957

16,999

39,559

1,041

1977

16,661,000

38.00 

10.19 

828,995

21,816

49,757

1,309

823,871 

21,681

49,449

1,301

755,245

19,875

45,330

1,193

1978

16,974,000

36.95 

13.59 

991,602

26,836

58,419

1,581

989,271 

26,773

58,282

1,577

904,768

24,486

53,303

1,443

1979

17,308,000

36.00 

8.17 

1,195,838

33,218

69,092

1,919

1,196,238 

33,229

69,115

1,920

1,095,161

30,421

63,275 

1 ,758

1980

17,642,000

36.00 

7.30 

1,491,059

41,418

84,518

2,348

1,488,953 

41,360

84,398

2,344

1,368,574

38,016

77,575 

2 ,155

1981

17,970,000

36.79 

6.16 

1,773,931

48,218

98,716

2,683

1,764,278 

47,955

98,179

2,669

1,614,934

43,896

89,868 

2 ,443

1982

18,297,000

39.12 

3.55 

1,899,971

48,568

103,841

2,654

1,899,289 

48,550

103,803

2,653

1,731,757

44,268

94,647 

2 ,419

1983

18,596,000

40.06 

8.45 

2,100,005

52,421

112,928

2,819

2,103,261 

52,503

113,103

2,823

1,917,111

47,856

103,093 

2 ,573

1984

18,873,000

39.62 

10.60 

2,343,078

59,139

124,150

3,134

2,368,478 

59,780

125,496

3,167

2,161,164

54,547

114,511 

2 ,890

1985

19,136,000

39.86 

4.95 

2,473,786

62,062

129,274

3,243

2,515,049 

63,097

131,430

3,297

2,282,388

57,260

119,272 

2 ,992

1986

19,357,000

37.85 

11.64 

2,855,180

75,434

147,501

3,897

2,925,772 

77,299

151,148

3,993

2,671,115

70,571

137,992 

3 ,646

1987

19,564,000

31.87 

12.74 

3,237,051

101,570

165,460

5,192

3,303,031 

103,641

168,832

5,298

3,017,330

94,676

154,229 

4 ,839

1988

19,788,000

28.61 

7.84 

3,523,193

123,146

178,047

6,223

3,611,536 

126,233

182,511

6,379

3,299,817

115,338

166,758 

5 ,829

資料來源:中華民國行政院主計處中華民國統計資訊網

資料網址:http://www.stat.gov.tw/public/Attachment/511171894671.xls

 

 

158


 

附錄四:非常時期人民團體組織法

 

中華民國 31 年 1 月 24 日 制定 20 條  中華民國 31 年 2 月 10 日公佈

 

 

第一條

  非常時期各種人民團體之組織,依本法之規定。

 

第二條   人民團體之主管官署,在中央為社會部,在省為社會處,未設社會處之省為 民政廳,在院轄市為社會局,在縣、市為縣、市政府。但其目的事業,應依法受 該事業主管官署之指揮、監督。

 

第三條

  人民團體因同一業務而結合者,為職業團體。

 

第四條   各種職業之從業人,均應依法組織職業團體,並應依法加入各該團體為會 員。各種職業團體依法許其有級數之組織者,其下級團體均應加入各該上級團體

為會員。

 

第五條

  職業團體之會員,除法律另有規定外,以現在從事本業者為限。

 

第六條

  凡具有兩種以上人民團體之會員資格者,得同時加入兩種以上之團體為會 員。

 

第七條

  人民團體組織之區域,除法令另有規定外,以行政區域為其組織區域。

 

第八條

  人民團體在同一區域內,除法令另有規定外,其同性質同級者以一個為限。

 

第九條   人民團體均應置理事、監事,就會員中選舉之,其名額依左列之規定:    一、縣、市以下人民團體之理事不得逾九人。    二、省或院轄市人民團體之理事不得逾二十五人。    三、中央直轄人民團體之理事不得逾三十一人。    四、各級人民團體之監事名額不得超過該團體理事名額三分之一。

五、各級人民團體均得置候補理事、候補監事,其名額不得超過該團體理事、 監事名額三分之一。

  前項各款理事、監事名額在三人以上時,得按名額多寡,互選常務理事、常 務監事一人至五人,必要時並得就常務理事中選舉一人為理事長。

 

第十條

  各職業團體置書記一人,以曾經訓練合格之人員充任,必要時得由主管官署 指派。其他人民團體遇必要時,得依前項規定辦理。

 

第十一條   人民團體之發起人數,除法令另有規定外,應依左列之規定:    一、縣各級人民團體之組織,應有十五人以上之發起。    二、中央直轄及省或院轄市之人民團體之組織,應有三十人以上之發起。

三、依法有級數組織之人民團體,應先組織其下級團體,有過半數之下級團

體組織完成時,得發起組織其上級團體。

 

第十二條   人民團體之章程,應載明左列事項:    一、名稱。    二、宗旨。    三、區域。    四、會址。    五、任務或事業。    六、組織。    七、會員入會出會及除名。    八、會員之權利與義務。    九、職員名額權限任期及其選任解任。    十、會議。    十一、經費及會計。    十二、章程之修改。

 

第十三條

  人民團體之組織,應由發起人向主管官署申請許可,經許可後,主管官署應 即派員指導。

第十四條

  人民團體經許可組織,其發起人應即推定籌備員組織籌備會,呈報主管官署 備案。

 

第十五條

  人民團體於召開成立大會前,應將籌備經過,連同章程草案,呈報主管官署, 並請派員監選。

 

第十六條

  人民團體組織完成時,應即造具會員名冊、職員略歷冊連同章程各一份,呈 報主管官署立案,並由主管官署造具簡表,轉送目的事業主管官署備查。

 

第十七條

  人民團體經核准立案後,應頒發立案證書及圖記。前項立案證書及圖記之式 樣暨頒發規則,由社會部定之。

 

第十八條

  人民團體違反法令妨害公益或怠忽任務時,主管官署得分別施以左列之處 分:    一、警告。    二、撤銷其決議。    三、整理。    四、解散。    職業團體經解散後,應即重行組織。

  下級主管官署為第一項第三款或第四款之處分時,應經其上級主管官署之核 准。第一項第一款及第二款之處分,目的事業主管官署亦得為之。

 

第十九條

  現行法令關於人民團體組織之規定,與本法不牴觸者,仍適用之。

 

第二十條   本法自公佈日施行。  資料來源:《中央日報》,中華民國 31 年 2 月 11 日,版 3。

附錄五:中華人民共和國和美利堅合眾國聯合公報(上海公報)

 

1972 年 2 月 28 日

 

1972 年 2 月,美國總統尼克森應中國總理周恩來的邀請訪華。中美兩國政 府於 2 月 27 日在上海簽署〈聯合公報〉(又稱〈上海公報〉),並於 28 日發表。〈聯 合公報〉的發表,標誌著中美兩國政府經過 20 多年的對抗,開始向關係正常化 方向發展,為兩國建交奠定了基礎。〈聯合公報〉的全文如下:

 

      應中華人民共和國總理周恩來的邀請,美利堅合眾國總統理查‧尼克森自一 九七二年二月二十一日至二月二十八日訪問了中華人民共和國。陪同總統的有尼 克森夫人、美國國務卿威廉‧羅傑斯、總統助理亨利‧基辛格博士和其他美國官 員。

 

尼克森總統于二月二十一日會見了中國共產黨主席毛澤東。兩位元領導人就

中美關係和國際事務認真、坦率地交換了意見。

 

      訪問中,尼克森總統和周恩來總理就美利堅合眾國和中華人民共和國關係正 常化以及雙方關心的其他問題進行了廣泛、認真和坦率的討論。此外,國務卿威 廉‧羅傑斯和外交部長姬鵬飛也以同樣精神進行了會談。

 

      尼克森總統及其一行訪問了北京,參觀了文化、工業和農業專案,還訪問了 杭州和上海,在那裏繼續同中國領導人進行討論,並參觀了類似的專案。

 

      中華人民共和國和美利堅合眾國領導人經過這麼多年一直沒有接觸之後,現 在有機會坦率地互相介紹彼此對各種問題的觀點,對此,雙方認為是有益的。他 們回顧了經歷著重大變化和巨大動盪的國際形勢,闡明了各自的立場和態度。

 

      中國方面聲明:哪裡有壓迫,哪裡就有反抗。國家要獨立,民族要解放,人 民要革命,已成為不可抗拒的歷史潮流。國家不分大小,應該一律平等,大國不 應欺負小國,強國不應欺負弱國。中國決不做超級大國,並且反對任何霸權主義 和強權政治。中國方面表示:堅決支持一切被壓迫人民和被壓迫民族爭取自由、 解放的鬥爭;各國人民有權按照自己的意願,選擇本國的社會制度,有權維護本 國獨立、主權和領土完整,反對外來侵略、干涉、控制和顛覆。一切外國軍隊都 應撤回本國去。中國方面表示:堅決支持越南、老撾、柬埔寨三國人民為實現自 己的目標所作的努力,堅決支持越南南方共和臨時革命政府的七點建議以及在今 年二月對其中兩個關鍵問題的說明和印度支那人民最高級會議聯合聲明;堅決支 持朝鮮民主主義人民共和國政府一九七一年四月十二日提出的朝鮮和平統一的 八點方案和取消“聯合國韓國統一復興委員會”的主張;堅決反對日本軍國主義的 復活和對外擴張,堅決支持日本人民要求建立一個獨立、民主、和平和中立的日 本的願望;堅決主張印度和巴基斯坦按照聯合國關係印巴問題的決議,立即把自 己的軍隊全部撤回到本國境內以及查漠和克什米爾停火線的各自一方,堅決支持 巴基斯坦政府和人民維護獨立、主權的鬥爭以及查漠和克什米爾人民爭取自決權 的鬥爭。

 

      美國方面聲明:為了亞洲和世界的和平,需要對緩和當前的緊張局勢和消除 衝突的基本原因作出努力。美國將致力於建立公正而穩定的和平。這種和平是公 正的,因為它滿足各國人民和各國爭取自由和進步的願望。這種和平是穩定的, 因為它消除外來侵略的危險。美國支持全世界各國人民在沒有外來壓力和干預的 情況下取得個人自由和社會進步。美國相信,改善具有不同意識形態的國與國之 間的聯繫,以便減少由於事故、錯誤估計或誤會而引起的對峙的危險,有助於緩 和緊張局勢的努力。各國應該互相尊重並願進行和平競賽,讓行動作出最後判 斷。任何國家都不應自稱一貫正確,各國都要準備為了共同的利益重新檢查自己 的態度。美國強調:應該允許印度支那各國人民在不受外來干涉的情況下決定自 己的命運;美國一貫的首要目標是談判解決;越南共和國和美國在一九七二年一 月二十七日提出的八點建議提供了實現這個目標的基礎;在談判得不到解決時, 美國預計在符合印度支那每個國家自決這一目標的情況下從這個地區最終撤出 所有美國軍隊。美國將保持其與大韓民國的密切聯繫和對它的支持;美國將支持 大韓民國為謀求在朝鮮半島緩和緊張局勢和增加聯繫的努力。美國最高度地珍視 同日本的友好關係,並將繼續發展現存的緊密紐帶。按照一九七一年十二月二十 一日聯合國安全理事會的決議,美國贊成印度和巴基斯坦之間的停火繼續下去, 並把全部軍事力量撤至本國境內以及查漠和克什米爾停火線的各自一方;美國支 持南亞各國人民和平地、不受軍事威脅地建設自己的未來的權利,而不使這個地 區成為大國競爭的目標。

 

中美兩國的社會制度和對外政策有著本質的區別。但是,雙方同意,各國不 論社會制度如何,都應根據尊重各國主權和領土完整、不侵犯別國、不干涉別國 內政、平等互利、和平共處的原則來處理國與國之間的關係。國際爭端應在此基 礎上予以解決,而不訴諸武力和武力威脅。美國和中華人民共和國準備在他們的 相互關係中實行這些原則。

      

 

考慮到國際關係的上述這些原則,雙方聲明:       ──中美兩國關係走向正常化是符合所有國家的利益的;

      ──雙方都希望減少國際軍事衝突的危險;      ──任何一方都不應該在亞洲──太平洋地區謀求霸權,每一方都反對任何 其他國家或國家集團建立這種霸權的努力;

      ──任何一方都不準備代表任何第三方進行談判,也不準備同對方達成針對 其他國家的協議或諒解。

 

      雙方都認為,任何大國與另一大國進行勾結反對其他國家,或者大國在世界 上劃分利益範圍,那都是違背世界各國人民利益的。

 

      雙方回顧了中美兩國之間長期存在的嚴重爭端。中國方面重申自己的立場: 臺灣問題是阻礙中美兩國關係正常化的關鍵問題;中華人民共和國政府是中國的 唯一合法政府;臺灣是中國的一個省,早已歸還祖國;解放臺灣是中國內政,別 國無權干涉;全部美國武裝力量和軍事設施必須從臺灣撤走。中國政府堅決反對 任何旨在製造“一中一台”、“一個中國、兩個政府”、“兩個中國”、“臺灣獨立”和 鼓吹“臺灣地位未定”的活動。

 

      美國方面聲明:美國認識到,在臺灣海峽兩邊的所有中國人都認為只有一個 中國,臺灣是中國的一部分。美國政府對這一立場不提出異議。它重申它對由中 國人自己和平解決臺灣問題的關心。考慮到這一前景,它確認從臺灣撤出全部美 國武裝力量和軍事設施的最終目標。在此期間,它將隨著這個地區緊張局勢的緩 和逐步減少它在臺灣的武裝力量和軍事設施。

 

     雙方同意,擴大兩國人民之間的瞭解是可取的。為此目的,他們就科學、技 術、文化、體育和新聞等方面的具體領域進行了討論,在這些領域中進行人民之 間的聯繫和交流將會是互相有利的。雙方各自承諾對進一步發展這種聯繫和交流 提供便利。

 

      雙方把雙邊貿易看作是另一個可以帶來互利的領域,並一致認為平等互利的 經濟關係是符合兩國人民的利益的。他們同意為逐步發展兩國間的貿易提供便 利。

 

      雙方同意,他們將通過不同渠道保持接觸,包括不定期地派遣美國高級代表 前來北京,就促進兩國關係正常化進行具體磋商並繼續就共同關心的問題交換意 見。

 

      雙方希望,這次訪問的成果將為兩國關係開闢新的前景。雙方相信,兩國關 係正常化不僅符合中美兩國人民的利益,而且會對緩和亞洲及世界緊張局勢作出 貢獻。       尼克森總統、尼克森夫人及美方一行對中華人民共和國政府和人民給予他們 有禮貌的款待,表示感謝。

 

資料來源:中華人民共和國外交部網站

http://big5.fmprc.gov.cn/gate/big5/www.fmprc.gov.cn/chn/wjb/zzjg/tyfls/ tyfl/1153/t4966.htm

下載日期:2007.06.14

 

 

 

 

附錄六:上海公報(英文版)

Joint Joint Communique of the United States of America and the People's Republic of China

 

February 28, 1972

 

President Richard Nixon of the United States of America visited the People's Republic of China at the invitation of Premier Chou En-lai of the People's Republic of

China from February 21 to February 28, 1972. Accompanying the President were Mrs.

Nixon, U.S. Secretary of State William Rogers, Assistant to the President Dr. Henry Kissinger, and other American officials.

 

President Nixon met with Chairman Mao Tsetung of the Communist Party of China on February 21. The two leaders had a serious and frank exchange of views on Sino-U.S. relations and world affairs. 

 

During the visit, extensive, earnest and frank discussions were held between President Nixon and Premier Chou En-lai on the normalization of relations between the United States of America and the People's Republic of China, as well as on other matters of interest to both sides. In addition, Secretary of State William Rogers and Foreign Minister Chi Peng-fei held talks in the same spirit.

 

President Nixon and his party visited Peking and viewed cultural, industrial and agricultural sites, and they also toured Hangchow and Shanghai where, continuing discussions with Chinese leaders, they viewed similar places of interest.

 

The leaders of the People's Republic of China and the United States of America found it beneficial to have this opportunity, after so many years without contact, to present candidly to one another their views on a variety of issues. They reviewed the international situation in which important changes and great upheavals are taking place and expounded their respective positions and attitudes. 

 

The Chinese side stated: Wherever there is oppression, there is resistance. Countries want independence, nations wan liberation and the people want revolution--this has become the irresistible trend of history. All nations, big or small, should be equal: big nations should not bully the small and strong nations should not bully the weak. China will never be a superpower and it opposes hegemony and power politics of any kind. The Chinese side stated that it firmly supports the struggles of all the oppressed people and nations for freedom and liberation and that the people of all countries have the right to choose their social systems according their own wishes and the right to safeguard the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of their own countries and oppose foreign aggression, interference, control and subversion. All foreign troops should be withdrawn to their own countries. The Chinese side expressed its firm support to the peoples of Viet Nam, Laos and Cambodia in their efforts for the attainment of their goal and its firm support to the seven-point proposal of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Viet Nam and the elaboration of February this year on the two key problems in the proposal, and to the Joint Declaration of the Summit Conference of the Indochinese Peoples. It firmly supports the eight-point program for the peaceful unification of Korea put forward by the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea on April 12, 1971, and the stand for the abolition of the "U.N. Commission for the Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea". It firmly opposes the revival and outward expansion of Japanese militarism and firmly supports the Japanese people's desire to build an independent, democratic, peaceful and neutral Japan. It firmly maintains that India and Pakistan should, in accordance with the United Nations resolutions on the Indo- Pakistan question, immediately withdraw all their forces to their respective territories and to their own sides of the ceasefire line in Jammu and Kashmir and firmly supports the Pakistan Government and people in their struggle to preserve their independence and sovereignty and the people of Jammu and Kashmir in their struggle for the right of self-determination. 

 

The U.S. side stated: Peace in Asia and peace in the world requires efforts both to reduce immediate tensions and to eliminate the basic causes of conflict. The United States will work for a just and secure peace: just, because it fulfills the aspirations of peoples and nations for freedom and progress; secure, because it removes the danger of foreign aggression. The United States supports individual freedom and social progress for all the peoples of the world, free of outside pressure or intervention. The United States believes that the effort to reduce tensions is served by improving communication between countries that have different ideologies so as to lessen the risks of confrontation through accident, miscalculation or misunderstanding. Countries should treat each other with mutual respect and be willing to compete peacefully, letting performance be the ultimate judge. No country should claim infallibility and each country should be prepared to re-examine its own attitudes for the common good. The United States stressed that the peoples of Indochina should be al- lowed to determine their destiny without outside intervention; its constant primary objective has been a negotiated solution; the eight-point proposal put forward by the Republic of Viet Nam and the United States on January 27, 1972 represents a basis for the attainment of that objective; in the absence of a negotiated settlement the United States envisages the ultimate withdrawal of all U.S. forces from the region consistent with the aim of self-determination for each country of Indochina. The United States will maintain its close ties with and support for the Republic of Korea; the United States will support efforts of the Republic of Korea to seek a relaxation of tension and increased communication in the Korean peninsula. The United States places the highest value on its friendly relations with Japan; it will continue to develop the existing close bonds. Consistent with the United Nations Security Council Resolution of december 21, 1971, the United States favors the continuation of the ceasefire between India and Pakistan and the withdrawal of all military forces to within their own territories and to their own sides of the ceasefire line in Jammu and Kashmir; the United States supports the right of the peoples of South Asia to shape their own future in peace, free of military threat, and without having the area become the subject of great power rivalry. 

 

There are essential differences between China and the United States in their social systems and foreign policies. However, the two sides agreed that countries, regardless of their social systems, should conduct their relations on the principles of respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all states, non-aggression against other states, non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence. International disputes should be settled on this basis, without resorting to the use or threat of force. The United States and the People's Republic of China are prepared to apply these principles to their mutual relations. 

 

With these principles of international relations in mind the two sides stated that: 

 

Progress toward the normalization of relations between China and the United States is in the interests of all countries 

Both wish to reduce the danger of international military conflict 

Neither should seek hegemony in the Asia-Pacific region and each is opposed to efforts by any other country or group of countries to establish such hegemony  Neither is prepared to negotiate on behalf of any third party or to enter into agreements or understandings with the other directed at other states.

 

Both sides are of the view that it would be against the interests of the peoples of the world for any major country to collude with another against other countries, or for major countries to divide up the world into spheres of interest. 

 

The two sides reviewed the long-standing serious disputes between China and the United States. The Chinese side reaffirmed its position: the Taiwan question is the crucial question obstructing the normalization of relations between China and the United States; the Government of the People's Republic of China is the sole legal government of China; Taiwan is a province of China which has long been returned to the motherland; the liberation of Taiwan is China's internal affair in which no other country has the right to interfere; and all U.S. forces and military installations must be withdrawn from Taiwan. The Chinese Government firmly opposes any activities which aim at the creation of "one China, one Taiwan", "one China, two governments", "two Chinas", an "independent Taiwan" or advocate that "the status of Taiwan remains to be determined". 

 

The U.S. side declared: The United States acknowledges that all Chinese on either side of the Taiwan Strait maintain there is but one China and that Taiwan is a part of China. The United States Government does not challenge that position. It reaffirms its interest in a peaceful settlement of the Taiwan question by the Chinese themselves. With this prospect in mind, it affirms the ultimate objective of the withdrawal of all U.S. forces and military installations from Taiwan. In the meantime, it will progressively reduce its forces and military installations on Taiwan as the tension in the area diminishes. The two sides agreed that it is desirable to broaden the understanding between the two peoples. To this end, they discussed specific areas in such fields as science, technology, culture, sports and journalism, in which people-to-people contacts and exchanges would be mutually beneficial. Each side undertakes to facilitate the further development of such contacts and exchanges. 

 

Both sides view bilateral trade as another area from which mutual benefit can be derived, and agreed that economic relations based on equality and mutual benefit are in the interest of the peoples of the two countries. They agree to facilitate the progressive development of trade between their two countries. 

 

The two sides agreed that they will stay in contact through various channels, including the sending of a senior U.S. representative to Peking from time to time for concrete consultations to further the normalization of relations between the two countries and continue to exchange views on issues of common interest. 

The two sides expressed the hope that the gains achieved during this visit would open up new prospects for the relations between the two countries. They believe that the normalization of relations between the two countries is not only in the interest of the Chinese and American peoples but also contributes to the relaxation of tension in Asia and the world. 

 

President Nixon, Mrs. Nixon and the American party expressed their appreciation for the gracious hospitality shown them by the Government and people of the People's Republic of China.

 

 

資料來源:美國國務院網站

http://usinfo.state.gov/eap/Archive_Index/joint_communique_1972.html

下載日期:2007.06.14

 

 


 

 

                                                                                   附錄

附錄七:中華人民共和國和美利堅合眾國關於建立外交關係的聯合公報

 

1978 年 12 月 15 日

 

中華人民共和國和美利堅合眾國商定自一九七九年一月一日起互相承認並建立

外交關係。

 

美利堅合眾國承認中華人民共和國政府是中國的唯一合法政府。在此範圍內,

美國人民將同臺灣人民保持文化、商務和其他非官方關係。

 

中華人民共和國和美利堅合眾國重申上海公報中雙方一致同意的各項原則,並

再次強調:

 

──雙方都希望減少國際軍事衝突的危險。

──任何一方都不應該在亞洲-太平洋地區以及世界上任何地區謀求霸權,每一方 都反對任何國家或國家集團建立這種霸權的努力。

──任何一方都不準備代表任何第三方進行談判,也不準備同對方達成針對其他國 家的協議或諒解。

──美利堅合眾國政府承認中國的立場,即只有一個中國,臺灣是中國的一部分。

──雙方認為,中美關係正常化不僅符合中國人民和美國人民的利益,而且有助於 亞洲和世界的和平事業。

 

中華人民共和國和美利堅合眾國將於一九七九年三月一日互派大使並建立大使 館。

 

 

資料來源:中華人民共和國外交部網站

http://big5.fmprc.gov.cn/gate/big5/www.fmprc.gov.cn/chn/wjb/zzjg/tyfls/tyfl/

1153/t4923.htm

下載日期:2007.06.14

 

 

附錄八:建交公報(英文版)

Joint Communique of the United States of America and  the People's Republic of China

 

January 1, 1979

(The communique was released on December 15, 1978, in Washington and Beijing.)

 

The United States of America and the People's Republic of China have agreed to recognize each other and to establish diplomatic relations as of January 1, 1979. 

 

The United States of America recognizes the Government of the People's Republic of China as the sole legal Government of China. Within this context, the people of the United States will maintain cultural, commercial, and other unofficial relations with the people of Taiwan. 

 

The United States of America and the People's Republic of China reaffirm the principles agreed on by the two sides in the Shanghai Communique and emphasize once again that: 

 

Both wish to reduce the danger of international military conflict. 

 

Neither should seek hegemony in the Asia-Pacific region or in any other region of the world and each is opposed to efforts by any other country or group of countries to establish such hegemony. 

 

Neither is prepared to negotiate on behalf of any third party or to enter into agreements or understandings with the other directed at other states. 

 

The Government of the United States of America acknowledges the Chinese position that there is but one China and Taiwan is part of China. 

 

Both believe that normalization of Sino-American relations is not only in the interest of the Chinese and American peoples but also contributes to the cause of peace in Asia and the world. 

 

The United States of America and the People's Republic of China will exchange Ambassadors and establish Embassies on March 1, 1979.  資料來源:美國國務院網站

http://usinfo.state.gov/eap/Archive_Index/joint_communique_1979.html

下載日期:2007.06.14

附錄九:臺灣關係法

Taiwan Relations Act

Public Law 96-8 96th Congress

An Act:

 

To help maintain peace, security, and stability in the Western Pacific and to promote the foreign policy of the United States by authorizing the continuation of commercial, cultural, and other relations between the people of the United States and the people on Taiwan, and for other purposes.

 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

 

SHORT TITLE

 

SECTION 1. This Act may be cited as the "Taiwan Relations Act".

 

FINDINGS AND DECLARATION OF POLICY

 

SEC. 2. (a) The President- having terminated governmental relations between the United States and the governing authorities on Taiwan recognized by the United States as the Republic of China prior to January 1, 1979, the Congress finds that the enactment of this Act is necessary--

 

  1. to help maintain peace, security, and stability in the Western Pacific; and 
  2. to promote the foreign policy of the United States by authorizing the continuation of commercial, cultural, and other relations between the people of the United States and the people on Taiwan.

(b) It is the policy of the United States-- 

  1. to preserve and promote extensive, close, and friendly commercial, cultural, and other relations between the people of the United States and the people on Taiwan, as well as the people on the China mainland and all other peoples of the Western Pacific area;

 

  1. to declare that peace and stability in the area are in the political, security, and economic interests of the United States, and are matters of international concern;

 

  1. to make clear that the United States decision to establish diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China rests upon the expectation that the future of Taiwan will be determined by peaceful means;

 

  1. to consider any effort to determine the future of Taiwan by other than peaceful means, including by boycotts or embargoes, a threat to the peace and security of the Western Pacific area and of grave concern to the United States; 

 

  1. to provide Taiwan with arms of a defensive character; and 

 

  1. to maintain the capacity of the United States to resist any resort to force or other forms of coercion that would jeopardize the security, or the social or economic system, of the people on Taiwan. 

(c) Nothing contained in this Act shall contravene the interest of the United States in human rights, especially with respect to the human rights of all the approximately eighteen million inhabitants of Taiwan. The preservation and enhancement of the human rights of all the people on Taiwan are hereby reaffirmed as objectives of the United States. 

 

IMPLEMENTATION OF UNITED STATES POLICY WITH REGARD TO

TAIWAN

 

SEC. 3. (a) In furtherance of the policy set forth in section 2 of this Act, the United States will make available to Taiwan such defense articles and defense services in such quantity as may be necessary to enable Taiwan to maintain a sufficient self-defense capability.

 

  1. The President and the Congress shall determine the nature and quantity of such defense articles and services based solely upon their judgment of the needs of Taiwan, in accordance with procedures established by law. Such determination of Taiwan's defense needs shall include review by United States military authorities in connection with recommendations to the President and the Congress.

 

  1. The President is directed to inform the Congress promptly of any threat to the security or the social or economic system of the people on Taiwan and any danger to the interests of the United States arising therefrom. The President and the Congress shall determine, in accordance with constitutional processes, appropriate action by the United States in response to any such danger.

APPLICATION OF LAWS; INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS

 

SEC. 4. (a) The absence of diplomatic relations or recognition shall not affect the application of the laws of the United States with respect to Taiwan, and the laws of the United States shall apply with respect to Taiwan in the manner that the laws of the United States applied with respect to Taiwan prior to January 1, 1979.

 

(b)The application of subsection (a) of this section shall include, but shall not be limited to, the following: 

  1. Whenever the laws of the United States refer or relate to foreign countries, nations, states, governments, or similar entities, such terms shall include and such laws shall apply with such respect to Taiwan.

 

  1. Whenever authorized by or pursuant to the laws of the United States to conduct or carry out programs, transactions, or other relations with respect to foreign countries, nations, states, governments, or similar entities, the President or any agency of the United States Government is authorized to conduct and carry out, in accordance with section 6 of this Act, such programs, transactions, and other relations with respect to Taiwan (including, but not limited to, the performance of services for the United States through contracts with commercial entities on Taiwan), in accordance with the applicable laws of the United States.

 

(3)(A) The absence of diplomatic relations and recognition with respect to Taiwan shall not abrogate, infringe, modify, deny, or otherwise affect in any way any rights or obligations (including but not limited to those involving contracts, debts, or property interests of any kind) under the laws of the United States heretofore or hereafter acquired by or with respect to Taiwan.

 

(B) For all purposes under the laws of the United States, including actions in any court in the United States, recognition of the People's Republic of China shall not affect in any way the ownership of or other rights or interests in properties, tangible and intangible, and other things of value, owned or held on or prior to December 31, 1978, or thereafter acquired or earned by the governing authorities on Taiwan.

 

  1. Whenever the application of the laws of the United States depends upon the law that is or was applicable on Taiwan or compliance therewith, the law applied by the people on Taiwan shall be considered the applicable law for that purpose.

 

  1. Nothing in this Act, nor the facts of the President's action in extending diplomatic recognition to the People's Republic of China, the absence of diplomatic relations between the people on Taiwan and the United States, or the lack of recognition by the United States, and attendant circumstances thereto, shall be construed in any administrative or judicial proceeding as a basis for any United States Government agency, commission, or department to make a finding of fact or determination of law, under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978, to deny an export license application or to revoke an existing export license for nuclear exports to Taiwan.

 

  1. For purposes of the Immigration and Nationality Act, Taiwan may be treated in the manner specified in the first sentence of section 202(b) of that Act.

 

  1. The capacity of Taiwan to sue and be sued in courts in the United States, in accordance with the laws of the United States, shall not be abrogated, infringed, modified, denied, or otherwise affected in any way by the absence of diplomatic relations or recognition.

 

  1. No requirement, whether expressed or implied, under the laws of the United States with respect to maintenance of diplomatic relations or recognition shall be applicable with respect to Taiwan.

 

  1. For all purposes, including actions in any court in the United States, the Congress approves the continuation in force of all treaties and other international agreements, including multilateral conventions, entered into by the United States and the governing authorities on Taiwan recognized by the United States as the Republic of China prior to January 1, 1979, and in force between them on December 31, 1978, unless and until terminated in accordance with law.

 

  1. Nothing in this Act may be construed as a basis for supporting the exclusion or expulsion of Taiwan from continued membership in any international financial institution or any other international organization.

 

OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION

 

SEC. 5. (a) During the three-year period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act, the $1,000 per capita income restriction in insurance, clause (2) of the second undesignated paragraph of section 231 of the reinsurance, Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 shall not restrict the activities of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation in determining whether to provide any insurance, reinsurance, loans, or guaranties with respect to investment projects on Taiwan.

 

(b) Except as provided in subsection (a) of this section, in issuing insurance, reinsurance, loans, or guaranties with respect to investment projects on Taiwan, the Overseas Private Insurance Corporation shall apply the same criteria as those applicable in other parts of the world.

 

THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF TAIWAN

 

SEC. 6. (a) Programs, transactions, and other relations conducted or carried out by the President or any agency of the United States Government with respect to Taiwan shall, in the manner and to the extent directed by the President, be conducted and carried out by or through--

 

  1. The American Institute in Taiwan, a nonprofit corporation incorporated under the laws of the District of Columbia, or 

 

  1. such comparable successor nongovermental entity as the President may designate, (hereafter in this Act referred to as the "Institute").

 

  1. Whenever the President or any agency of the United States Government is authorized or required by or pursuant to the laws of the United States to enter into, perform, enforce, or have in force an agreement or transaction relative to Taiwan, such agreement or transaction shall be entered into, performed, and enforced, in the manner and to the extent directed by the President, by or through the Institute.

 

  1. To the extent that any law, rule, regulation, or ordinance of the District of Columbia, or of any State or political subdivision thereof in which the Institute is incorporated or doing business, impedes or otherwise interferes with the performance of the functions of the Institute pursuant to this Act; such law, rule, regulation, or ordinance shall be deemed to be preempted by this Act.

 

 

 

 

 

SERVICES BY THE INSTITUTE TO UNITED STATES CITIZENS ON TAIWAN

 

SEC. 7. (a) The Institute may authorize any of its employees on Taiwan-- 

  1. to administer to or take from any person an oath, affirmation, affidavit, or deposition, and to perform any notarial act which any notary public is required or authorized by law to perform within the United States;

 

  1. To act as provisional conservator of the personal estates of deceased United States citizens; and

 

  1. to assist and protect the interests of United States persons by performing other acts such as are authorized to be performed outside the United States for consular purposes by such laws of the United States as the President may specify.

 

(b) Acts performed by authorized employees of the Institute under this section shall be valid, and of like force and effect within the United States, as if performed by any other person authorized under the laws of the United States to perform such acts.

 

TAX EXEMPT STATUS OF THE INSTITUTE

 

SEC. 8. (a) The Institute, its property, and its income are exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed by the United States (except to the extent that section 11(a)(3) of this Act requires the imposition of taxes imposed under chapter 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, relating to the Federal Insurance Contributions Act) or by State or local taxing authority of the United States.

 

(b) For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, the Institute shall be treated as an organization described in sections 170(b)(1)(A), 170(c), 2055(a), 2106(a)(2)(A),, 2522(a), and 2522(b).

 

 

FURNISHING PROPERTY AND SERVICES TO AND OBTAINING SERVICES

FROM THE INSTITUTE

 

SEC. 9. (a) Any agency of the United States Government is authorized to sell, loan, or lease property (including interests therein) to, and to perform administrative and technical support functions and services for the operations of, the Institute upon such terms and conditions as the President may direct. Reimbursements to agencies under this subsection shall be credited to the current applicable appropriation of the agency concerned. 

  1. Any agency of the United States Government is authorized to acquire and accept services from the Institute upon such terms and conditions as the President may direct. Whenever the President determines it to be in furtherance of the purposes of this Act, the procurement of services by such agencies from the Institute may be effected without regard to such laws of the United States normally applicable to the acquisition of services by such agencies as the President may specify by Executive order.

 

  1. Any agency of the United States Government making funds available to the Institute in accordance with this Act shall make arrangements with the Institute for the Comptroller General of the United States to have access to the; books and records of the Institute and the opportunity to audit the operations of the Institute.

 

TAIWAN INSTRUMENTALITY

 

SEC. 10. (a) Whenever the President or any agency of the United States Government is authorized or required by or pursuant to the laws of the United States to render or provide to or to receive or accept from Taiwan, any performance, communication, assurance, undertaking, or other action, such action shall, in the manner and to the. extent directed by the President, be rendered or Provided to, or received or accepted from, an instrumentality established by Taiwan which the President determines has the necessary authority under the laws applied by the people on Taiwan to provide assurances and take other actions on behalf of Taiwan in accordance with this Act.

 

  1. The President is requested to extend to the instrumentality established by Taiwan the same number of offices and complement of personnel as were previously operated in the United States by the governing authorities on Taiwan recognized as the Republic of China prior to January 1, 1979.

 

  1. Upon the granting by Taiwan of comparable privileges and immunities with respect to the Institute and its appropriate personnel, the President is authorized to extend with respect to the Taiwan instrumentality and its appropriate; personnel, such privileges and immunities (subject to appropriate conditions and obligations) as may be necessary for the effective performance of their functions.

 

 

SEPARATION OF GOVERNMENT PERSONNEL FOR EMPLOYMENT WITH

THE INSTITUTE

 

SEC. 11. (a)(1) Under such terms and conditions as the President may direct, any agency of the United States Government may separate from Government service for a specified period any officer or employee of that agency who accepts employment with the Institute.

  1. An officer or employee separated by an agency under paragraph (1) of this subsection for employment with the Institute shall be entitled upon termination of such employment to reemployment or reinstatement with such agency(or a successor agency) in an appropriate position with the attendant rights, privileges, and benefits with the officer or employee would have had or acquired had he or she not been so separated, subject to such time period and other conditions as the President may prescribe.

 

  1. An officer or employee entitled to reemployment or reinstatement rights under paragraph (2) of this subsection shall, while continuously employed by the Institute with no break in continuity of service, continue to participate in any benefit program in which such officer or employee was participating prior to employment by the Institute, including programs for compensation for job-related death, injury, or illness; programs for health and life insurance; programs for annual, sick, and other statutory leave; and programs for retirement under any system established by the laws of the United States; except that employment with the Institute shall be the basis for participation in such programs only to the extent that employee deductions and employer contributions, as required, in payment for such participation for the period of employment with the Institute, are currently deposited in the program's or system's fund or depository. Death or retirement of any such officer or employee during approved service with the Institute and prior to reemployment or reinstatement shall be considered a death in or retirement from Government service for purposes of any employee or survivor benefits acquired by reason of service with an agency of the United States Government.

 

  1. Any officer or employee of an agency of the United States Government who entered into service with the Institute on approved leave of absence without pay prior to the enactment of this Act shall receive the benefits of this section for the period of such service.

 

  1. Any agency of the United States Government employing alien personnel on Taiwan may transfer such personnel, with accrued allowances, benefits, and rights, to the Institute without a break in service for purposes of retirement and other benefits, including continued participation in any system established by the laws of the United States for the retirement of employees in which the alien was participating prior to the transfer to the Institute, except that employment with the Institute shall be creditable for retirement purposes only to the extent that employee deductions and employer contributions.. as required, in payment for such participation for the period of employment with the Institute, are currently deposited in the system' s fund or depository. 

 

  1. Employees of the Institute shall not be employees of the United States and, in representing the Institute, shall be exempt from section 207 of title 18, United States Code.

 

(d)(1) For purposes of sections 911 and 913 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, amounts paid by the Institute to its employees shall not be treated as earned income. Amounts received by employees of the Institute shall not be:included in gross income, and shall be exempt from taxation, to the extent that they are equivalent to amounts received by civilian officers and employees of the Government of the United States as allowances and benefits which are exempt from taxation under section 912 of such Code.

 

(2) Except to the extent required by subsection (a)(3) of this section, service performed in the employ of the Institute shall not constitute employment for purposes of chapter 21 of such Code and title II of the Social Security Act.

 

REPORTING REQUIREMENT

 

SEC. 12. (a) The Secretary of State shall transmit to the Congress the text of any agreement to which the Institute is a party. However, any such agreement the immediate public disclosure of which would, in the opinion of the President, be prejudicial to the national security of the United States shall not be so transmitted to the Congress but shall be transmitted to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives under an appropriate injunction of secrecy to be removed only upon due notice from the President. 

 

(b) For purposes of subsection (a), the term "agreement" includes- 

  1. any agreement entered into between the Institute and the governing authorities on Taiwan or the instrumentality established by Taiwan; and

 

  1. any agreement entered into between the Institute and an agency of the United States Government.

 

 

  1. Agreements and transactions made or to be made by or through the Institute shall be subject to the same congressional notification, review, and approval requirements and procedures as if such agreements and transactions were made by or through the agency of the United States Government on behalf of which the Institute is acting.

 

  1. During the two-year period beginning on the effective date of this Act, the Secretary of State shall transmit to the Speaker of the House and Senate House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of Foreign Relations the Senate, every six months, a report describing and reviewing economic relations between the United States and Taiwan, noting any interference with normal commercial relations.

 

RULES AND REGULATIONS

 

SEC. 13. The President is authorized to prescribe such rules and regulations as he may deem appropriate to carry out the purposes of this Act. During the three-year period beginning on the effective date speaker of this Act, such rules and regulations shall be transmitted promptly to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate. Such action shall.not, however, relieve the Institute of the responsibilities placed upon it by this Act.'

CONGRESSIONAL OVERSIGHT

 

SEC. 14. (a) The Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, and other appropriate committees of the Congress shall monitor-

 

  1. the implementation of the provisions of this Act; 

 

  1. the operation and procedures of the Institute; 

 

  1. the legal and technical aspects of the continuing relationship between the United States and Taiwan; and

 

  1. the implementation of the policies of the United States concerning security and cooperation in East Asia.

 

(b) Such committees shall report, as appropriate, to their respective Houses on the results of their monitoring.

 

DEFINITIONS

 

SEC. 15. For purposes of this Act-

 

  1. the term "laws of the United States" includes any statute, rule, regulation, ordinance, order, or judicial rule of decision of the United States or any political subdivision thereof; and 

 

  1. the term "Taiwan" includes, as the context may require, the islands of Taiwan and the Pescadores, the people on those islands, corporations and other entities and associations created or organized under the laws applied on those islands, and the governing authorities on Taiwan recognized by the United States as the Republic of China prior to January 1, 1979, and any successor governing authorities (including political subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities thereof).

 

AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

 

SEC. 16. In addition to funds otherwise available to carry out the provisions of this Act, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of State for the fiscal year 1980 such funds as may be necessary to carry out such provisions. Such funds are authorized to remain available until expended.

 

SEVERABILITY OF PROVISIONS

 

SEC. 17. If any provision of this Act or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the Act and the application of such provision to any other person or circumstance shall not be affected thereby.

 

EFFECTIVE DATE

 

SEC. 18. This Act shall be effective as of January 1, 1979. Approved April 10, 1979.

 

資料來源:美國國務院網站

http://usinfo.state.gov/eap/Archive_Index/Taiwan_Relations_Act.html

下載日期:2007.06.14

2013-08-28 16:22

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